Articles on Paraliminals
Foundations of Paraliminal Technology
Descriptions, Research, and Related Literature
|by Paul Scheele
explains the Paraliminal Technology that is used with many
of our programs. It will examine the literature on the supporting
technologies of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching
Methods, Whole Brain Learning, Imagery, Suggestion, Relaxation
and Neuro-Linguistic Programming.
The amount of
literature on each of the above mentioned subjects is quite
large. The intent of this paper is to survey the literature
and provide a framework for further understanding. It is not
intended to be exhaustive in detail.
sessions are audio CDs. Each one presents creative new ideas
to help individuals overcome internal obstacles and achieve
personal and professional goals. They are unique in their application
of the latest educational technologies.
"Para" is the
Latin prefix meaning "beyond". "Liminal" refers to the "limen" or "threshold" of
conscious awareness. The term literally means, "beyond the
threshold of conscious awareness".
The term was
coined, in part, to distinguish it from "subliminal" which
means, "below the threshold". In psychological literature,
subliminal refers to information that cannot be consciously
With the Paraliminal
learning sessions, the listener can hear separate messages
coming into each ear, but it is beyond the conscious mind's
ability to process both messages simultaneously for more than
a few moments. The result is an interesting multi-level communication
to different hemispheres of the brain. The listener can choose
which ear's information to attend to, and one's attention tends
to switch from time to time. Consequently, the conscious mind's
experience of the CD is different with each listening session.
Yet, the other-than-conscious [referred to as "paraconscious" by
Lozanov (1978)] receives the entire message each time.
Principle Educational and Therapeutic Technologies
technology can be most readily identified as an application
of Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching (SALT) methodologies.
The essence of this set of instructional methods uses an unusual
combination of physical relaxation exercises, mental concentration
and suggestive principles. These are intended to strengthen
a person's ego and expand his or her mental capabilities while
material to be learned is presented dynamically with relaxing
music (Schuster & Gritton, 1986).
The basic theory
behind SALT is that as humans we operate with unity of our
conscious and paraconscious mind. Theory also states that suggestion
is the key to using our mental reserves to accelerate learning.
The use of SALT techniques according to Dr. Caskey (1980), "permits
information to be absorbed more readily by the individual by
bypassing emotional barriers which accompany most learning
activities and it results in a larger percentage of learned
material being retained in the long-term memory area of the
With SALT techniques
the resulting learning has been found to be faster, more enjoyable,
with high retention rates, while the self-concept of the learner
is enhanced (Caskey, 1980).
sessions have been designed using the theories and methods
of SALT, and Dr. Georgi Lozanov's original works in Suggestopedia—which
will be described later. The result is a collection of unique
learning experiences which accelerate the listener past their
blocks and into new ways of dealing with their personal and
The second most
significant foundation in the development of the Paraliminal
technology is Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP). Known as "The
study of the structure of subjective experience" (Dilts, et
al., 1980), NLP is an extension of several sciences. Developed
by Dr. John Grinder and Richard Bandler (Grinder & Bandler,
1975, 1976), it has its roots in linguistics, neurology, and
NLP is a model
for understanding the basic processes used by all human beings
to encode, transfer, guide, and modify behavior. "Neuro" stands
for the idea that neurological processes cause all behavior. "Linguistic" refers
to the way that neural processes are represented, ordered and
sequenced into models and strategies through language and communication
systems. "Programming" refers to the way internal sensory systems
are organized for the achievement of specific outcomes. In
sum, NLP is "The New Science of Achievement" (Robbins, 1986).
sessions employ the NLP technology in several ways. First,
in the development of special linguistic structures to ensure
ideal suggestions are presented. Second, in the creation of
specific therapeutic patterns to enhance the process of learning
and change. Third, in the actual delivery of messages on the
CDs. This includes the choice of voice qualities, music phrasing
and tonal marking, as well as the selection of sensory specific
SALT and NLP
technologies share the common goal of using communication to
accelerate the process of human learning and change. Both are
equally concerned with the medium and the message. Both stress
the importance of process rather than content. And central
to both models is the use of therapeutic and educational suggestion.
technology is an application of these two technologies, combined
with sophisticated digital audio imaging effects and production
techniques. Testimonial accounts of the benefits are plentiful.
To give credence to client results, the various components
of each technology will be examined in the pages that follow.
The next section
will present the elements of SALT technology then the elements
of NLP employed in Paraliminal learning sessions will be examined.
Suggestive-Accelerative Learning and Teaching
Early in this
century, Professor William James in his essay, "The Energies
of Men," said that very few people live up to their full potential. "As
a rule," he wrote, "men habitually use only a small part of
the powers which they actually possess and which they might
use under appropriate conditions."
It wasn't until
much later that a systematic effort in the field of human memory
and learning bore out what Dr. James had realized. In the 1960's
the extensive research of Dr. Georgi Lozanov, a Bulgarian psychiatrist,
developed a new approach to accelerate learning and use the
superpowers of mind. He applied elements of suggestion techniques
and relaxation to classroom learning and termed the methods
Suggestopedia (Lozanov, 1971). In America these methods have
become known as suggestive-accelerative approaches to learning
(Schuster, et al., 1976).
have been shown to be, "successful in increasing the amount
of material learned in a given time or reducing the amount
of time necessary to learn new material in a wide variety of
subject matter areas at almost all educational levels" (Caskey,
Elements of SALT
There are several
elements to SALT methods that we will examine in relation to
the Paraliminal technology. They are:
Whole Brain Education
of SALT technology will be examined, one at a time in the pages
• 10 Principles
Ten interdependent principles support SALT
methods as described in depth by Dr. Owen Caskey (1980). They are:
1) "A comfortable,
attractive learning setting increases acquisition and retention." Paraliminal
learning sessions make use of this by encouraging the listener
to create just such an environment prior to listening.
2) "A relaxed
state (physically and mentally) enhances learning and retention." Paraliminal
learning sessions induce such states prior to the learning
hemisphere input into the brain (whole-brain learning) increases
acquisition of new material." Paraliminal learning sessions
are recorded in stereophonic 3-D sound, giving independent
messages to each ear. (See more on this in the next section
on whole brain learning.)
use of the conscious and unconscious learning (double-planeness)
makes learning easier and more productive." Paraliminal learning
sessions have linguistically structured, indirectly suggestive
messages to engage the paraconscious mind, while delivering
direct suggestion to the conscious mind.
5) "An organized
methodology (components and sequence) overcomes the anti-suggestive
barriers which reject or inhibit new learning." Paraliminal
learning sessions deliver specific step-by-step instructions
to lead the listener through the learning process.
emphasizing didactic, psychological, multisensory, and artistic
elements increases learning and retention." Paraliminal learning
sessions make specific requests of the listener. In addition,
valid psychological principles are used for content along with
3-D special effects, environmental sounds and original score
music used to create a unique internal sensory environment.
of psychohygenic conditions focuses concentration, while a
musical background relaxes, resulting in increased recall and
long-term memory." Special attention is given to offer strong
self-esteem building messages on all Paraliminal learning sessions.
The music is especially written and arranged to create optimal
is increased if information is viewed as being creditable and
from an authoritative source." Promotional literature uses
testimonials and stresses the legitimacy of the underlying
technologies. Also promoted is the credibility of Learning
Strategies Corporation and the academic credentials of the
9) "A positive
and encouraging learning atmosphere increases learning and
retention." Paraliminal learning sessions have been carefully
scripted, to the subtlest detail, to ensure positive wording
and goal orientation.
in learning heightens self-concepts and promotes personal adjustment
and self-confidence." The increments of progress in learning
are kept reasonable to ensure success with each listening.
• Whole Brain
In the last decade,
an enormous amount of literature has been written on the subjects
of Left Brain, Right Brain and Whole Brain Education. Based
on the research on hemispheric specialization, (Benson, 1985),
(Watzlawick, 1978), (Williams, 1983), (Segalowitz, 1983), (Springer,
1981), (Clark, 1986), (Blakeslee, 1980), (Porac, 1981), (Corballis & Beale,
1983), (Fadely & Hosler, 1983), Paraliminal learning sessions
have been designed to offer independent messages to each hemisphere.
This is accomplished through the selection of hemispherically
relevant content, hemispherically compatible linguistic structures
and vocally modulated delivery of the messages.
research, the left hemisphere's main function is translation
of perceptions into logical, semantic and phonetic representations
of reality. It also serves to communicate with the outside
world on the basis of logical analytical coding.
sessions deliver into the right ear, the message for the left
hemisphere since the ears are neurologically cross wired (Corballis & Beale,
1983). These messages include specific descriptions of linear,
sequential processes like the step-by-step procedures of particular
NLP change processes, and detailed and logical explanations
of various concepts and concrete experiences.
The right hemisphere
is highly specialized in the holistic grasping of complex relationships,
patterns configurations and structures. Its associations are
non linear (via, free associations).
On the Paraliminal
learning sessions, the messages given to this hemisphere, through
the left ear, follow right hemisphere language patterns. According
to Dr. Paul Watzlawick (1978), and Linda Williams (1983), these
include: condensations, figurative language, giving bits of
the whole, ambiguities, puns, allusions, visual imagery, fantasy,
evocative language, metaphor, and multisensory language.
Imagery is perhaps
the most potent tool in the process of accelerating learning
in humans. Largely underestimated by most educators and learners,
imagery holds phenomenal potential for revolutionizing education.
More importantly it is an awesome force in directing the process
As Dr. Eric Klinger
(1981) puts it, "Clinical evidence indicates strongly...that
modifying imagery modified the models or schemata that underlie
subsequent behavior." He goes on to say, "...working on a person's
imagery gives us direct access to the processes necessary for
change. It would make imagery techniques among our most powerful
techniques for intervening in people's lives." (p. 10)
CD makes full use of imagery in many ways. They employ sophisticated
refinements on the instruction of guided imagery. For example,
the Paraliminal technology encourages full-sensory imagery,
distinguishing associated imagery from disassociated imagery
when appropriate (Bandler, 1987).
Music is processed
primarily in the right hemisphere (Gordon, 1970). Studies have
found that the type of musical background can play a significant
role in various learning tasks (Lozanov, 1971), (Bordon & Schuster,
1976), (Schuster & Mouzon, 1982).
sessions are produced with all originally scored music, arranged
following the specifications outlined by Lozanov teacher-trainer
The proper creation
of suggestion is well outlined in the literature of SALT (Schuster & Gritton,
1986), in the NLP works of Bandler and Grinder (1975, 1977),
(Grinder & Bandler 1981), and in the hypnosis literature
on Dr. Milton Erickson (Haley, 1967). Among the considerations
used in the development of Paraliminal CD scripts, one of the
most significant was to distinguish between direct and indirect
verbal suggestion. In most cases, indirect suggestion is used.
Types of indirect
suggestion used in Paraliminal learning sessions include: truisms,
implied causatives, simple binds, focusing questions, double
binds, yes sets, compounding suggestions and complex contingent
suggestions. The importance of employing these techniques of
suggestion is that the paraconscious mind follows the instruction
without arousing resistance from the conscious mind (Erickson,
et al., 1976).
of alertness are critical to the suggestive-accelerative learning
experience. Evidence of this is found in much educational research.
As Schuster and Gritton (1986) concluded, "Students generally
learn better when they are relaxed thoroughly and consistently...than
when they are anxious and nervous." (p. 83)
these findings in education (Clark, 1986), as well as with
findings in therapy (Grinder & Bandler, 1982), Paraliminal
learning sessions rely on creating relaxed states of mind.
This is accomplished primarily through therapeutic suggestion
and the use of progressive relaxation (Jacobson, 1957).
Learning and Teaching methods are at the cutting edge of human
development technology. Paraliminal audio cassette learning
technology is a direct application of the principles set forth
by SALT researchers.
In addition to
collaborative books by Grinder and Bandler and their respective
writings, other authors have written extensively on the subject
(Robbins, 1986), (Lankton, 1980), (Gordon, 1978), (Cameron-Bandler,
1985), (Cameron-Bandler, et al., 1985), (Jacobson, 1983, 1986),
(Meese, et al., 1985) to name just a few. However, this paper
will not examine the underpinnings of the NLP technology. Rather,
it will focus on where the Paraliminal technology has borrowed
There are three
major areas in which Paraliminal learning sessions use NLP
technology. These include:
Specific Change Techniques
Delivery of the Messages
In the pages
that follow, these major areas of application will be summarized.
In their landmark
book, The Structure of Magic, Vol. 1, (1975), Grinder and Bandler
describe the linguistic structures which prevent and accelerate
human communication and change. Ill-formed linguistic structures
tend to be wrought with common deletions, distortions and generalizations.
Such language patterns tend to prevent people from gaining
access to the rich resources within.
On the other
hand, well-formed linguistic structures tend to be goal oriented
and shape a positive framework for accessing one's internal
resources (Grinder, 1973). In constructing the scripts for
the Paraliminal learning sessions, proper well-formed linguistic
structures are used to keep the listener goal oriented and
At times, the
language is "artfully vague" (Grinder & Bandler, 1981)
following the patterns of Dr. Milton Erickson. This allows
the right hemisphere the maximum room for personalizing the
content of the representations made in the mind. This phenomenon
based on the "pars-pro-toto principle" (Watzlawick, 1978),
lets the right hemisphere have immediate recognition of a totality
on the basis of one essential (unspecified) detail.
sessions also use linguistic structuring to help block the
left hemisphere from interfering with the change process. This
is accomplished by the use of: illusion of alternatives, symptom
displacements and problem reframing. These techniques prevent
self-sabotage from the conscious mind. [Such sabotage is often
used as a primary justification for the use of subliminal technology
in personal development CDs (Dixon, 1981).]
Specific Change Techniques
In the therapeutic
community, Grinder and Bandler have been heralded for eliciting
extremely accurate representations of perhaps the greatest
change masters of our time. Their models include the work of
Virginia Satir of family therapy, Dr. Fritz Perls of Gestalt
therapy, Dr. Gregory Bateson of psychology, and Dr. Milton
Erickson, M.D., of hypnotherapy. In Dr. Erickson's forward
to Grinder and Bandler's book on his work (1975), he states, "...it
is a much better explanation of how I work than I, myself,
learning sessions use many of the actual change patterns described
in the works of NLP. Several include: reframing, new behavior
generation, collapsing realities, anchoring, chaining states,
future pacing, stepping into resource, submodality manipulation
and timeline therapy.
Each change technique
is described in a step-by-step fashion to the left hemisphere
of the listener. The listener is given the opportunity to follow
along by filling in relevant content from his or her own experience
at each step in the technique.
Delivery of the Message
• Vocal Variety
in the delivery of instructional material has been an integral
part of suggestive-accelerative learning and teaching techniques
(Clark, 1986), (Schuster & Gritton, 1986), (Lozanov, 1978),
(Caskey, 1980). Intonation and rhythm are cited as key variants.
brought the art of delivering suggestion to a high level of
refinement (Grinder & Bandler, 1981). Paraliminal learning
sessions use a melodious, sonorous voice trained by years of
clinical experience and voice instructors to be ideal for the
(It should be
noted that this is a huge distinction from "Hypnotic" self-improvement
tapes that rely on boring, monotonous delivery of authoritarian
commands like, "sleep!".)
• Double Induction/Confusion
Upon first listening,
two independent messages coming into different ears can be
confusing. This confusion is actually an integral part of the
Paraliminal technology. Developed over years of clinical research,
Dr. Erickson refined what he called his "Confusion Technique".
It is essentially
a way of playing with the communication in order to “...introduce
progressively an element of confusion into the question of
what is meant, thereby leading to an inhibition of responses
called for but not allowed to be manifested and hence to an
accumulating need to respond.” (Haley, 1967, p. 156)
technique is primarily a hypnotic technique to bypass the critical
mind. Since the critical/logical mind cannot respond, the paraconscious
tends to take over, building up a strong potential to respond.
This technique was further developed by Grinder and Bandler
in their lecturing style during the mid and late 1970's. It
was then picked up and refined as a “double-induction” of hypnosis
by Drs. Steve Gilligan and Paul Carter in their seminars on
sessions, by the nature of their dual-voice effect, create
the Ericksonian phenomenon. The resulting positive effects
are best achieved when the CD is listened to from start to
finish. This allows for the progressive introduction of confusion.
One of the key reasons why listeners are instructed to create
a “special time” for listening to the CD in its entirety is
to enhance this effect.
NLP “Pacing” techniques
are another way that the delivery of the message is enhanced.
Pacing is a technique of matching vocal patterns to physiological
experiences of the listener (Laborde, 1984). For example, the
listener's breathing rhythms can be paced by the rhythm of
the word phrases on the CD. Another example is to comment on
tunnel vision occurring as a person is asked to gaze at one
spot on the wall. The effect is the development of profound
levels of unconscious rapport (Grinder & Bandler, 1981).
• Other Techniques
Another NLP technique
used in the delivery of messages includes tonal marking or
anchoring. This is the process of assigning a nonverbal stimulus
to a specific subjective experiences. Psychologists as far
back as Pavlov in the 1800's understood this as stimulus-response
is to specify all sensory systems—visual, auditory and kinesthetic—when
guiding the imagery of the listener. The resulting “Full Sensory
Imagery”, is superior to single sensory imaging in its impact
on the listener's experience (Klinger, 1981).
learning sessions rely on the remarkable power and effectiveness
of the NLP technology in their script designs and studio recordings.
With NLP, the Paraliminal technology capitalizes on the opportunity
for truly multi-level communication, using both hemispheres
of the brain and tapping the unconscious reserves of mind.
possess capabilities of mind, literally beyond genius.”—Dr.
Barbara Brown, physiologist, developer of biofeedback.
“We are only
now on the threshold of knowing the range of educability of
man.”—Dr. Jerome Bruner, Harvard University.
Findings in the
literature on human development, learning and therapeutic change,
point to a new age of personal and professional growth. Because
of decades of pioneering efforts on all fronts, new vistas
are being realized that seemed unattainable a few short years
educational market is currently a multi-billion dollar industry.
Innovators in learning and human development technologies are
needed. The challenge is to create brain-compatible learning
methods that are cost effective, enjoyable to use, and achieve
the necessary results. Learning Strategies Corporation has
introduced one such innovation with the Paraliminal technology
of audio cassette learning.
approaches a learning situation, as purchasers of audio cassettes
do, they come with a two-sided mind. As Williams (1983) puts
it, “We must encourage them to use it, to develop both types
of thinking so that they have access to the fullest range of
possible mental abilities.” (p. 190). The Paraliminal learning
sessions are the only commercially available audio learning
cassettes to do this.
sessions apply the new theories and principles recently discovered
to improve the human condition. As research continues, greater
understanding of the mechanisms of learning and change will
undoubtedly be revealed. Then, what potential can be reached
by human beings?
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