Fingertip Oximeter x2

NZ$136.39  NZ$81.85
Save: 40% off

Approx USD$59.95

Oxygen is one of the most important keys to good health, but not everyone is aware of it. Currently scientists are examining the role oxygen starvation plays in the development of disease.

"What are the normal oxygen levels in humans?
A: Quick Answer Mayo Clinic defines the normal human oxygen level as 95 percent to 100 percent. Levels below 90 percent are considered low. Oxygen levels are usually measured with a pulse oximeter device attached to the finger; this device measures the amount of oxygen saturating the blood",,see below

The air we breathe contains oxygen. Oxygen is the spark of life. Just as a fire can’t burn without oxygen our cells can’t produce heat and energy without oxygen. Oxygen is extracted from the air we breathe by the lungs. It passes into the blood vessels that surround the lungs and is carried to all the cells of the body by the blood. Most of the oxygen is carried by the red blood cells, though some of it is carried by the water in the blood. A deficiency of water means reduced oxygen delivery by the blood. So important is oxygen, that even where optimum water, protein, vitamin and mineral intake exists, ill health will still exist if there’s an oxygen deficiency. Under-breathing is epidemic among adults.

"When the body has ample oxygen, it produces enought energy to optimize metabolism and eliminate accumulated toxic wastes in the tissues. Natural immunity is achieved when the immune system is not burdened with heavy "toxic buildup". Detoxification occurs when oxygen is introduced into the system."
- Dr. Norman McVea

The mechanics of breathing determine oxygen supply. Shallow chest breathing gives rise to oxygen deficiencies, as there are very few blood vessels surrounding the upper lobes of the lungs. Most of the blood vessels surround the lower lobes of the lung. Deep, abdominal breathing is the answer to optimum oxygen levels.

The blood is one of the most important substances in the body. The blood sustains the vital activities and it nourishes the body. Therefore, it keeps the function of the tissues, organs and circulation pathway in good order.

Dark Field Microscope

When the blood is cleansed, it has oxygen. When it is dirty, it has more waste or carbon dioxide. The condition of the blood will determine the function and the condition of the organs. The heart, the spleen, the lungs, the liver, the skin, the muscles, all depends on the blood.

Smoking though as we all know is an incredibly dangerous habit that leads to emphezema, lung cancer, diminished lung capacity and a lot of health problems that are directly related to the poor air flow and dirty blood that you will get from smoking. Give up Smoking

Most people breathe shallowly. Tight clothing and a lifetime spent rushing, sitting hunched over desks doing paperwork, studying, working computers and getting stressed out produces the bad habits of shallow breathing. Babies don’t chest breathe. Neither do drunks. They’re both so relaxed they breathe easily and deeply and their tummies rise and fall to the rhythm of this breathing.

"...Insufficient oxygen means insufficient biological energy that can result in anything from mild fatigue to life threatening disease.The link beweeen insufficient oxygen and disease has now been firmly established. The more oxygen we have in our system, the more energy we produce."
- Dr. W. Spencer Way: Journal of the American Association of Physicians

For a majority of us, common sense dictates that oxygen is one of the most basic, and most important necessities for life. While we all need to eat, drink and sleep in order to survive, it is the simple act of breathing, filling our lungs, and our blood, with oxygen – that, which is most necessary for life.

However, oxygen does more than simply allow us to continue our existence.

Before we get to the benefits of oxygen , let’s look at the increasing problem of oxygen deficiency today and the symptoms of this problem.

Since some have begun to measure in 1989, there has been a steady decline of free oxygen in our atmosphere. And while this is nothing more than expected, since every molecule of additional carbon dioxide locks up two oxygen atoms, the free oxygen decline is greater than the carbon dioxide lock-up.

Decline Of Atmospheric Oxygen Levels
Did you know that the evolution and development of all life on this planet is directly proportionate to the increase of oxygen levels in the atmosphere?

Improper Diets
The majority of people eat food that is exces­sively acidic. Their diet emphasizes red meat, coffee and even sodapop. This causes the development of an acid (less-than-optimally alkaline) constitution with an excess of positively-charged hydrogen ions (H+) in the entire system. When excessive numbers of hydrogen ions are in the tissues, they combine with and use up oxygen. This reduces the amount of oxygen available for the primary function of metabolism. Health problems follow.
An oxygen deficiency plays an important part in cellular contamination. Oxygen is a powerful detoxifier and when its quantity is deficient, toxins begin to devastate bodiiy functions and deplete the body of life-giving energy.

"Air pollution can also accelerate aging. Procter & Gamble recently released a report indicating that polluted air can contain over 200 chemicals that age the skin. And in a recent study on women’s health, air pollution from city life added as much as 10 percent to perceived aging."

The fact is that in order to be suitable for life – any life; from plants to people, a planet’s atmosphere must have gradually higher densities of oxygen, dependent on the complexity of life supported. Thus, to sustain intelligent and complex life, such as us, an atmosphere requires high levels of oxygen.

Unfortunately, since ancient times, with the growing proliferation of technology in our society, and the decline of natural sources of oxygen such as trees, the increase of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere has been steadily matched by the decrease of oxygen levels.

This means that we aren’t getting enough oxygen – that most important of life’s requirements, from the air we breathe.

Possible reasons WHY we are NOT getting ENOUGH OXYGEN

If the body is stressed it will cause an oxygen deficiency, and there are four major types of stress which deplete oxygen:
1: TOXIC STRESS - stress resulting from toxic envi­ronmental chemicals requires the use of extra oxygen; since oxygen is used in all detoxification processes.
2: EMOTIONAL STRESS - stress everyone is familiar with; it brings about the production of adrenaline and adrenal-related hormones which utilize oxygen.
3: PHYSICAL TRAUMA - reduces circulation and the subsequent oxygen supply to a great many cells and tissues throughout the entire body.
4: INFECTIONS - use up "free-radical" forms of oxy­gen to combat bacteria, fungi and viruses. Frequent use of drugs to counteract infections also depletes cellular oxygen since oxygen is required to metabolize them out of the system.

So, what does this mean? What are the real medical concerns that we should bear in mind when considering the benefits of oxygen therapy?

"The large majority of those infectious microbes that cause us so much illness and pain are ANAEROIC...a big word that means they live and proliferate best in environments where there is LITTLE OR NO OXYGEN."
- Ed McCabe: Oxygen Therapies: A New Way of Approaching Disease

Symptoms Of Oxygen Deficiency Disease
It is no coincidence that diseases such as cancer have increased dramatically in the last one hundred-and-fifty years.

Cancer, above all other diseases, has countless secondary causes. But, even for cancer, there is only one prime cause. Summarized in a few words, the prime cause of cancer is the replacement of the respiration of oxygen in normal body cells by a fermentation of sugar. All normal body cells meet their energy needs by respiration of oxygen, whereas cancer cells meet their energy needs in great part by fermentation. All normal body cells are thus obligate aerobes, whereas all cancer cells are partial anaerobes. From the standpoint of the physics and chemistry of life this difference between normal and cancer cells is so great that one can scarcely picture a greater difference. Oxygen gas, the donor of energy in plants and animals is dethroned in the cancer cells and replaced by an energy yielding reaction of the lowest living forms, namely, a fermentation of glucose.

The key to the cancer problem is accordingly the energetics of life, which has been the field of work of the Dahlem institute since its initiation by the Rockefeller Foundation about 1930. In Dahlem the oxygen transferring and hydrogen transferring enzymes were discovered and chemically isolated. In Dahlem the fermentation of cancer cells was discovered decades ago; but only in recent years has is been demonstrated that cancer cells can actually grow in the body almost with only the energy of fermentation. Only today can one submit, with respect to cancer, all the experiments demanded by PASTEUR and KOCH as proof of the prime causes of a disease. If it is true that the replacement of oxygen-respiration by fermentation is the prime cause of cancer, then all cancer cells without exception must ferment, and no normal growing cell ought to exist that ferments in the

during the cancer development the oxygen - respiration always falls, fermentation appears, and the highly differentiated cells are transformed to fermenting anaerobes, which have lost all their body functions and retain only the now useless property of growth

Thus, when respiration disappears, life does not disappear, but the meaning of life disappears, and what remains are growing machines that destroy the body in which they grow.

body. The Prime Cause and Prevention of Cancer
(Revised Lindau Lecture) By OTTO WARBURG

In Summary:
Impairment of respiration is more frequent than impairment of fermentation because respiration is more complicated than fermentation.
The impaired respiration can be easily replaced by fermentation, because both processes have a common catalyst, the nicotinamide.
The consequence of the replacement of respiration by fermentation is mostly glycolysis, with death of the cells by lack of energy. Only if the energy of fermentation is equivalent to the lost energy of respiration, is the consequence anaerobiosis. Glycolysis means death by fermentation, anaerobiosis means life by fermentation.
The physicist MANFRED VON ARDENNE ... recently discovered that cancer cells owing to their fermentation, are more acid - inside and on their surface - than normal cells

The reason Food Therapies for cancer even exist today (beyond the fact that they work) is because someone once saw the connection between sugar and cancer. There are many food therapies, but not a single one allows many foods high in carbohydrates and not a single one allows sugars, BECAUSE SUGAR FEEDS CANCER.

While oxygen deficiency is not the only cause of these ailments, it is still an influencing factor and treatment such as hyberbaric oxygen therapy can combat oxygen deficiency and reduce the risk of developing cancer and other major diseases.

The very latest oxygen meter

As discussed by DR. Stephen Levine and Dr. Parris Kidd, oxygen is the source of life and energy to all cells. Body abuse through eating and drinking habits (including pollutants and toxic preservatives in our water and food), air pollution, use of drugs and lack of exercise can greatly reduce the amount of oxygen available to the cells. When there is insufficient oxygen to support the health of a cell, the cell turns to another source of energy called fermentation. This fermentation results in an anaerobic environment, which upsets the metabolism of the cell, and it no longer participates in the healthy functioning of the body. It causes the cells to start manufacturing improper chemicals, and soon a whole group of cells are unhealthy and weak. They lose their natural immune system.

Dr. Parris Kidd has stated that: "Oxygen plays a pivotal role in the functioning of the immune system; ie resistant to disease, bacteria, and viruses." Dr. Stephen Levine has also stated that "We can look at oxygen deficiency as the single greatest cause of all disease." Thus the development of a shortage of oxygen in the blood could very well be the starting point for the loss of the immune system and the beginning of the feared health problems such as cancer, leukemia, AIDS, candida, seizures, and nerve deterioration.

The renowned biochemist and Nobel Prize laureate, Dr.Otto Warburg, confirm this research. He stressed the importance of oxygen especially in its connection to cancer. Dr. Warburg summarized by saying, "The prime cause of cancer is the replacement of the normal oxygen respiration of body cells by an anaerobic cell respiration."

Dr. Freibott explains why oxygen and oxidation is so vital: "It is the lack of oxygen in proper amounts in the system that prevents oxidation and oxygenation, which energized the cells to biological regeneration. These Processes are the foundation of life and death.

"If the normal environment of the cell can be maintained, it will not lose its growth and reproduction potential. Sub-oxygen creates sub-oxidation."

An oxygen deficiency plays an important part in cellular contamination. Oxygen is a powerful detoxifier, and when its quantity is deficient, toxins begin to devastate body functions and delete the body of life-giving energy.

"Without oxygen, there can be no nourishment." Without nourishment, no heat and no energy can be created, and the body cannot purify itself. the unhindered development of this metabolic process results in a circumstance that we call sound health.

Detoxification and Cleansing Effects

Some known medical symptoms of oxygen deficiency are:

Stomach acid
Bacterial, viral and parasitic infection
Chronic hostility
Circulatory problems
Increased proneness to common infections such as the flu
Bodily weakness
Poor digestion
Irrational behaviour

"Lack of oxygen clearly plays a major role in causing cells to become cancerous." - Dr. Harry Goldblatt: Journal of Experimental Medicine


Oxygen shortage,Yeast,infections andl
There is currently a virtual epidemic of common yeast infections (Candida Albicans). These take root with relative ease in an oxygen-deprived body. In this environment, yeast cells generate large quantities of acetaldehyde, causing cellular damage. Acetaldehyde in the intestinal wall and liverdisrupt intestinal absorption and impair white and red blood cell functions.
When yeast cells are deprived of oxygen, they become even more resistant to immune defences, since they are capable of anaerobic (no-oxygen) me­tabolism. A !ow oxygen level is the major contributing factor to yeast susceptibility.
In addition, oxygen-starved tissues can gener­ate the following disorders: heart disease, strokes, diabetes and peripheral arterial deficiency. An inad­equate oxygen supply will also contribute to memory loss, dizziness, loss of balance, and depression in older persons with decreased cerebral blood flow.

Finger Pulse Oximeter and Heart Rate Monitor

Oxygen levels are also vital in maintaining the balance of "friendly" bacteria over disease-causing bacteria, and other organisms in the body.

With one of the costs of modern life being the reduction of atmospheric oxygen levels through pollution in our air, oxygen can counteract the effects of this on your day-to-day life and provide the following benefits that you will notice:

Heightened concentration
Faster thinking
Sharper sight
More retentive memory
Stronger heart
Calm mind and stable nervous system
Faster recovery time after physical exertion
Natural remedy for headaches and hangovers
Reduced muscle stiffness
Resistance against chronic fatigue
Stable and regular sleeping patterns
Oxygen provides 90% of our energy. With only 10% coming from food and water, this really drives home the point of how important oxygen is in our day-to-day lives.

Are you Getting Enough Oxygen ?

Oxygen plays an important role in the body acting as a guardian and protector against unfriendly bacteria and disease organisms. One of oxygen's major functions is disintegration. Rubble, garbage, toxins, refuse, debris, and anything useless are destroyed by oxygen and carried out of the system. Just as a clean house holds little interest to passing flies, likewise, likewise, an oxygen rich body is a difficult fortress to assail.

Now you can measure your Blood Oxygen Levels

Finger Oxymeter

Do you feel tired all the time even though you get eight hours of sleep a night? Do your muscles throb every time you complete a workout even though you exercise every day; or do you experience occasional irritability for no apparent reason? If you answered yes to any of these questions, your problem may be a lack of adequate levels of oxygen in the blood.

Our bodies were designed to operate in an environment that existed hundreds of years ago -- when 30 to 40 percent of the air breathed was oxygen. Due in a large part to pollution, today, oxygen levels are about half that - 20 to 22 percent in most U.S. cities; as low as 15 percent in others.

According to Ed McCabe, author of "Flood Your Body With Oxygen," by living in an oxygen-deficient environment and not feeding our cells the proper oxygen and nutrients needed for cleaning out toxins and wastes, our body fluids and blood can become dirty and toxic. A lack of oxygen to our cells weakens our immune system, which may lead to viral infections, damaged cells, bacterial growths, inflamed joints, serious heart and circulatory problems, toxic buildup in blood and premature aging.

However, if the cells in our bodies are rich in oxygen, mutated cells may be less able to reproduce Other benefits of having adequate levels of oxygen in our systems: increased energy; the ability to maintain healthy cholesterol levels; enhanced brain function; a reduction in stress; the ability to overcome fatigue; and looking and feeling younger.

Now you can measure your Blood Oxygen Levels

Pulse oximetry

Pulse oximetry provides estimates of arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) by utilizing selected wavelengths of light to noninvasively determine the saturation of oxyhemoglobin (SpO2).

Pulse oximetry is a simple non-invasive method of monitoring the percentage of haemoglobin (Hb) which is saturated with oxygen The principle of pulse oximetry is based on the red and infrared light absorption characteristics of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. Oxygenated hemoglobin absorbs more infrared light and allows more red light to pass through. Deoxygenated (or reduced) hemoglobin absorbs more red light and allows more infrared light to pass through. Red light is in the 600-750 nm wavelength light band. Infrared light is in the 850-1000 nm wavelength light band.

"Many scientists were stunned recently when it was revealed that air bubbles trapped in fossilized amber had been analyzed and found to contain oxygen levels of 38%. Yet today it is well known that the average oxygen content of air is only about 19%. In other words, since the early history of the earth, it appears there has been an estimated 50% drop in the average oxygen content of air we breathe!" More Here

If your Blood Oxygen levels are low?


Ozone is one of the most energetic and useful agents known to science. Its therapeutic action is due to oxygenation of the blood by the loose molecule (free radical) of oxygen in the O3 compound. It is carried to the various organs and tissues of the body and absorbed, thus oxidizing the waste products, and facilitating their elimination. In other words, ozone increases the metabolism without the expenditure of vital energy and special stress should be laid on the fact that ozone is a NATURAL remedy.>>>Dr. William Turska

Some scientific studies have found that increasing the amount of oxygen in the body alkalizes the it and creates an environment where disease cannot exist. A good way to get oxygen into the body is through water. Past tests have shown that consuming oxygenated water increased the level of the oxygen in the blood. When the blood supply has more oxygen diseases have trouble growing.

"Workers can become asphyxiated by exposure to atmospheres deficient of oxygen, that can lead to serious injury or loss of life. Oxygen is the only component of the air we breathe capable of supporting life. Air is composed of approximately 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen and other trace components. Asphyxiation is the greatest hazard associated with nitrogen and other inert gases, such as argon and helium. However, the addition of any gas, except oxygen, to air reduces the oxygen concentration through displacement and dilution. Breathing as little as one or two breaths of air containing too little oxygen can have serious and immediate effects, including unconsciousness. Because there are no warning signs of reduced oxygen concentrations, these environments are extremely dangerous. Dangers of oxygen-deficient atmospheres

Effects of oxygen-deficient atmospheres
Effects of exposure to low oxygen concentrations can include giddiness, mental confusion, loss of judgment, loss of coordination, weakness, nausea, fainting, loss of consciousness and death. The immediate effects of low oxygen environments are due to our body’s oxy- gen transport system. Blood absorbs oxygen from the air in our lungs to fuel the cells in our bodies. The brain is the body organ most sensitive to the lack of oxygen. Within five seconds after inhaling only a few breaths of oxygen- free gas, there is a rapid drop in the oxygen concentration of the blood. Mental failure and coma follow a few seconds later. Symptoms or warnings are gener- ally absent, but even if present, the loss of mental competence, weakness, loss of coordination, or fainting prevents victims from helping themselves or even summoning help. Death follows in just two to four minutes. Warning: Exposure to atmospheres containing less than 10% oxygen can rapidly overcome a person and bring about unconsciousness without warning so they are incapable of helping themselves. Lack of sufficient oxygen can cause serious injury or death." source

Test the Oxygen levels in your immediate enviroment

NEW Oxygen Detector Meter
Portable Oxygen(O2) Concentration Detector
with LCD Display & Sound-light Alarm air quality monitor analyzer

Test : oxygen
Measurement range: 0~25%VOL
Measurement error: ±2%
Resolution: 0.1%
Preheating time: <10 seconds
Response time: <15 seconds
Environmental temperature measurement: -15 ~ 50 Celsius
Alarm mode: sound alarm, light alarm, vibration alarm
Alarm: low concentration 19.5%VOL yellow warning light flashing
High concentration 23.5%VOL red warning lights flashing
(alarm concentration can also be set up)
Continuous working time: 6 hours (with a slight change in the working state)
Power: 3x1.5V AAA battery(battery is not included)
Audio tip: the higher the frequency of the beep sound, the higher the concentration is.
Product size: 120*65*25mm

Package includes:
1 x Oxygen O2 Gas Detector(battery is not included)

"What is a dangerous blood oxygen level?
A: Quick Answer

Blood oxygen levels under 90 percent are considered low and warrant immediate medical attention, according to the Mayo Clinic. A dangerous blood oxygen level, also called hypoxemia, occurs when a lower-than-average level of oxygen is circulating from the blood to the cells and tissues of the body. Normal blood oxygen levels are within the 95 to 100 percent range. "

According to WebMD, symptoms of low blood oxygen levels include shortness of breath, fast heart rates, sweating, wheezing, mental confusion, coughing and changes in the color of the skin

What are the normal oxygen levels in humans?
Quick Answer Mayo Clinic defines the normal human oxygen level as 95 percent to 100 percent. Levels below 90 percent are considered low. Oxygen levels are usually measured with a pulse oximeter device attached to the finger; this device measures the amount of oxygen saturating the blood

Pulsed Oxymeter


Finger Pulse Oximeter and Heart Rate Monitor

FingerTip Oximeter

CE Approved assorted colors

Accurate oxygen saturation and pulse rate data in seconds
Easy to use; automatically turns on/off with finger insertion/removal Compact size fits easily into a pocket


Display Method: Color OLED display, two display directions.

The product is small in size, light in weight (total weight is about 50g including batteries) and convenient to carry

Power consumption of the product is low and the two originally-equipped two AAA batteries can be operated continuously for 30 hours

Low Voltage warning will be indicated in Visual window when battery voltage is so low that normal operation of the oximeter might be influenced

The product will automatically be powered off when no singnal is in the product for longer than 8 seconds

The product is suitable for use in family hospital and clinical , it can be used before or after sports .


Display 64K color OLED
Assorted colours
SpO2 Measurement range: 35~99%
Resolution: ± 1%
Accuracy: ± 2% (70%~99%), unspecified (<70%)
Pulse rate Measurement range: 30~255 bp

Neither cancer cells nor deadly viruses or bacteria can survive in an oxygen-rich environment. People who have tried drinking ordinary tap water and then tried oxygenated water say that they feel a huge difference. Energy levels, alertness and well being are all reported to have been positively affected by drinking oxygenated water.

High Quality Water Ozonater Back in stock now with Negative Ion Generator

Water Ozonater 600 mg/h More

Freshly ozonated water, consumed within 10 minutes of making it, will boost your entire immune system, because the extra molecule of oxygen is still in the water, and available for your body to absorb

Oxygen Set Ver 3

NEW Oxygen Detector Meter
FingerTip Oximeter
Water Ozonator 600 mg/h More

Three Items

Hydrogen Water maker also produces small amounts of Ozone

A Very Healthy Gift

Hydrogen Water Generator

Provide strong antioxidant hydrogen-rich water.

Portable - Use it anywhere, anytime to produce fresh hydrogen-water!

Power Source CD12V / 1A Rechargable Batteries with charger
Capacity: 0.380ml
Hydrogen water producing: 3 minutes, 5 minutes and 10 mins Dissolved Hydrogen : 0.6ppm
PH balance: 7.6 (slightly more alkaline, stabilizing the dissolved hydrogen)
ORP : -200 to -300 (reducing/antioxidant)
Green light means standby and finished procution, blue color means producing water
rH2 (Relative Hydrogen): 1 to 5 (reducing/antioxidant)

more information

Make Hydrogen Water for the Whole Family

Bench Top Family Hydrogen water system

Rated Voltage: 100-240v 50/60 HZ 1.8A
Capacity: 1- 2.5L
Timer 8 and 10 mintues
Hydrogen water producing: Basic/Strength way
Dissolved Hydrogen: 0.8ppm to 1.8ppm
PH balance: 7.6 (slightly more alkaline, stabilizing the dissolved hydrogen)
ORP: -500 to -550 (reducing/antioxidant)
RH2 (Relative Hydrogen): 1 to 5 (reducing/antioxidant)

more information

Explanation of Terms:
TDS=Total Dissolved Solids is a measure of the combined content of all organic and inorganic substances contained in a liquid. High TDS levels indicate "hard water", that can lead to scale buildup. Lower (10 - 60 pps) TDS is "soft water" and it is considered the best water for drinking and proper hydration.

Micro-clustered* water structure means smaller, 4 to 6 molecules per clusters.
That is an ideal, smaller cluster size, that can be absorbed more easily via osmosis.

pH=negative logarithm of hydrogen-ion concentration and it shows whether a solution is acidic or alkaline.

pH values range from 0 to 14. Neutral, pure water has a value of pH=7.
Acidic solutions have pH=0 to 7, alkaline solutions have pH=7 to 14 values.

ORP=Oxidation / Reduction Potential (Reduction Potential or Redox Potential) is a measure of tendency of chemical species to either acquire or donate electrons. Oxidative agents (like free radicals) need and acquire electrons. Reductive agents (antioxidants) have and donate electrons. ORP is measured in millivolts (mV) (mV).

Positive values (+200 mV to +500 mV) represent oxidation potential.
Neutral value is around +200 mV, assuming neutral pH=7 value.
Lower and negative values (+200 mV to -500 mV) represent the greater reduction (antioxidant) potential.

rH2=Relative Hydrogen Score shows the true reduction potential, electron concentration / electron activity in a solution

Molecular Bases of Hydrogen Effects for the scientificaly minded

"Effects of hydrogen on various diseases have been attributed to four major molecular mechanisms: a specific scavenging activity of? hydroxyl radical, a scavenging activity of peroxynitrite, alterations of gene expressions, and signal-modulating activities. The four mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and some of them may be causally associated with other mechanisms.

The first molecular mechanism identified for hydrogen was its specific scavenging activity of hydroxyl radical [6]. Indeed, oxidative stress markers like 8-OHdG, 4-hydroxyl-2-nonenal (4-HNE), malondialdehyde (MDA), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) are decreased in all the examined patients and rodents. As hydrogen can easily dissipate in exhalation, hydrogen in drinking water is able to stay in human and rodent bodies in less than 10?min (unpublished data). Hydrogen, however, can bind to glycogen, and the dwell time of hydrogen is prolonged in rat liver after food intake [33]. A question still remains if mice and humans can take a sufficient amount of hydrogen that efficiently scavenges hydroxyl radicals that are continuously generated in normal and disease states.

Another molecular mechanism of hydrogen effect is its peroxynitrite-() scavenging activity [6]. Although hydrogen cannot eliminate peroxynitrite as efficiently as hydroxyl radical in vitro [6], hydrogen can efficiently reduce nitric-oxide-(NO-) induced production of nitrotyrosine in rodents [34–38]. NO is a gaseous molecule that also exerts therapeutic effects including relaxation of blood vessels and inhibition of platelet aggregation [39]. NO, however, is also toxic at higher concentrations because NO leads to -mediated production of nitrotyrosine, which compromises protein functions. A part of hydrogen effects may thus be attributed to the reduced production of nitrotyrosine.

Expression profiling of rat liver demonstrated that hydrogen has a minimal effect on expression levels of individual genes in normal rats [40]. Gene ontology analysis, however, revealed that oxidoreduction-related genes were upregulated. In disease models of rodents, expression of individual genes and proteins is analyzed. In many disease models, hydrogen downregulated proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis-factor-(TNF-)??, interleukin-(IL-) 1ß, IL-6, IL-12, interferon-(IFN-)??, and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) [4, 23, 24, 36, 41–59]. Hydrogen also downregulated nuclear factors including nuclear factor kappa B (NFB), JNK, and proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) [24, 44, 50, 55, 60–63]. Caspases were also downregulated [10, 55–57, 62, 64, 65]. Other interesting molecules studied to date include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) [15]; MMP2 and MMP9 [34]; brain natriuretic peptide [48]; intercellular-adhesion-molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and myeloperoxidase [36]; B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) and Bcl2-associated X protein (Bax) [60]; MMP3 and MMP13 [38]; cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and connexins 30 and 43 [66]; ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1) [52]; fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) [33]. Most molecules, however, are probably passengers that are secondarily changed by hydrogen administration, and some are potentially direct targets of hydrogen effects, which need to be identified in the future.

Using rat RBL-2H3 mast cells, we demonstrated that hydrogen attenuates phosphorylation of FceRI-associated Lyn and its downstream signaling molecules [64]. As phosphorylation of Lyn is again regulated by the downstream signaling molecules and makes a loop of signal transduction pathways, we could not identify the exact target of hydrogen. Our study also demonstrated that hydrogen ameliorates an immediate-type allergic reaction not by radical-scavenging activity but by direct modulation of signaling pathway(s). In addition, using murine RAW264 macrophage cells, we demonstrated that hydrogen reduces LPS/IFN-induced NO production [67]. We found that hydrogen inhibits phosphorylation of ASK1 and its downstream signaling molecules, p38 MAP kinase, JNK, and IB??without affecting ROS production by NADPH oxidase. Both studies point to a notion that hydrogen is a gaseous signal modulator. More animal and cells models are expected to be explored to confirm that hydrogen exerts its beneficial effect as a signal modulator." Source

1: Ohta. Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: potential of molecular hydrogen for preventive and therapeutic applications. Curr Pharm Des 17:2241-52 (2011).


Pulse oximetry is considered a safe procedure, but because of device limitations, false-negative results for hypoxemia(4) and/or false-positive results for normoxemia(15,16) or hyperoxemia(17,18) may lead to inappropriate treatment of the patient.


Fingertip Oximeter x2

NZ$136.39  NZ$81.85
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Fingertip Oximeter x2
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NZ$136.39  NZ$81.85
Save: 40% off

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