Research Papers

Alpher, Elliott J., et. al.  Traumatic brain injury and full body reflex sympathetic dystrophy patient treated with cranial electrotherapy stimulation.  American Journal of Pain Management, 8(4):124-128, 1998.  Presented at the Ninth Annual Clinical Meeting of the American Academy of Pain Management, Atlanta, Georgia, September, 1998.
Bauer, William.  Electrical treatment of severe head and neck cancer pain.  Archives of Otolaryngology, 109(6):382-383, 1983.
Bauer, William.  Neuroelectric Medicine Journal of Bioelectricity, 2(2&3):159-180, 1983.
Brotman, Philip.  Low-intensity transcranial electrostimulation improves the efficacy of thermal biofeedback and quieting reflex training in the treatment of classical migraine headache.  American Journal of Electromedicine, 6(5):120-123, 1989.  Doctoral dissertation, City University Los Angeles, 117 pages, 1986.
Boswell, NS.  Neuroelectric therapy eliminates xerostomia during radiotherapy - A case history.  Medical Electronics, 115:105-107, February, 1989.
Boswell, NS, et. al.  Noninvasive electrical stimulation for the treatment of radiotherapy side effects.  American Journal of Electromedicine, 2(3), 1985. Presented at the International Conference on Head and Neck Cancer, Baltimore, Maryland, July, 1984.
Brovar, Alan.  Cocaine detoxification with cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES): A preliminary appraisal.  International Electromedicine Institute Newsletter, 1(4), July/Aug, 1984.  Also in Brain/Mind Bulletin, 9(14), August, 1984.
Childs, AllenCranial electrotherapy stimulation reduces aggression in violent retarded population: a preliminary report.  The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 17(4): 548-551, 2005.
Clark, Nancy, Mills, Daniel & Marchant, Jeremy.  Evaluation of the potential efficacy of the Alpha-Stim SCS in the horse.  DeMontfort University Equestrian Centre and Field Station, Caythorpe, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom. January, 2000.
Cork, Randall C., Wood, Patrick, Ming, Norbert, Shepherd, Clifton, Eddy, James, Price, LarryThe effect of cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) on pain associated with fibromyalgiaThe Internet Journal of Anesthesiology. 2004; Volume 8, Number 2.
Engelberg, M, et. al.  Transcutaneous electrical stimulation for tinnitus. Laryngoscope, 95(10):1,167-1,173, 1985.  Presented at the Meeting of the Southern Section of the American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, New Orleans, Louisiana, January, 1985.
Frick, AvaMicrocurrent electrical therapy heals a recalcitrant wound in a horse. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 25(11): 418-422, 2005.  Presented at Western Veterinary Conference, Las Vegas, NV, February 24, 2005.
Gibson, Thomas H, et. al.  Cranial application of low level transcranial electrotherapy vs. relaxation instruction in anxious patients.  American Journal of Electromedicine, 4(1):18-21, 1987.  Doctoral dissertation (TG), California School of Professional Psychology, 152 pages, 1983.
Gilula, Marshall F. and Barach, Paul R.  Cranial electrotherapy stimulation: a safe neuromedical treatment for anxiety, depression or insomnia.  Southern Medical Journal. 97(12):1269-1270, 2004.
Gilula, Marshall F., and Kirsch, Daniel LCranial electrotherapy stimulation review: a safer alternative to psychopharmaceuticals in the treatment of depression. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(2):63-77, 2005.  Presented at the International Society for Neuronal Regulation 12th Annual Conference, August 26-29, 2004 in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.
Heffernan, Michael.  The effect of variable microcurrents on EEG spectrum and pain control.  Canadian Journal of Clinical Medicine, 4(10):4-11, 1997.
Heffernan, Michael.  Comparative effects of microcurrent stimulation on EEG spectrum and correlation dimension.  Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 31(3):202-209, 1996.
Heffernan, Michael.  The effect of a single cranial electrotherapy stimulation on multiple stress measures.  The Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, 147:60-64, 1995.  Presented at the Eighth International Montreux Congress on Stress, Montreux Switzerland, February 1996.
King, GE, et al.  Electrotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen: promising treatments for postradiation complications.  Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 62(3):331-334, 1989.  Also published in the book, Emerging Electromagnetic Medicine, 283-289, edited by ME O'Conner, RHC Bentall and JC Monahan, Springer Verlag, New York, 1990.
Kirsch, Daniel, L.  Electromedicine: the other side of physiology. Chapter 60 in Pain Management: A Practical Guide for Clinicians (the textbook of the American Acadamy of Pain Management) edited by Richard S. Weiner, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, Pp 749-758, 2002.
Kirsch, Daniel L.  A practical protocol for electromedical treatment of pain.  Chapter 61 in Pain Management: A Practical Guide for Clinicians (the textbook of the American Academy of Pain Management) edited by Richard S. Weiner, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2002.
Kirsch, Daniel L. and Smith, Ray B.  The use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the management of chronic pain: a review.  NeuroRehabilitation, 14(2):85-94, 2000.
Kirsch, Daniel, L. and Smith R.  Cranial electrotherapy stimulation for anxiety, depression, insomnia, cognitive dysfunction, and pain.  In Bioelectromagnetic Medicine. Paul J. Rosch, Ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, Pp 727-740, 2004.
Kennerly, Richard.  QEEG analysis of cranial electrotherapy: a pilot study.  Journal of Neurotherapy (8)2, 2004.  Presented at the International Society for Neuronal Regulation annual conference, September 18-21, 2003 in Houston, Texas.
Kulkarni, Arun D. and Smith, Ray B.  The use of microcurrent electrical therapy and cranial electrotherapy stimulation in pain control.  Clinical Practice of Alternative Medicine. 2(2):99-102, 2001.
Lerner, Fred N, et. al.  A doubleblind comparative study of microstimulation and placebo effect in short term treatment of the chronic back pain patient.  Journal of the American Chiropractic Association, 15(11):101-106, 1981.
Lichtbroun, Alan S., Raicer, Mei-Ming C., and Smith, Ray B.  The treatment of fibromyalgia with cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, 7(2):72-78, 2001. Presented at the Fifteenth Annual International Symposium on Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics, Columbia University, New York, October 1999.
Madden, R, et. al.  Low intensity electrostimulation improves human learning of a psychomotor task.  American Journal of Electromedicine, 4(2):41-45, 1987.  Doctoral dissertation, City University Los Angeles, 95 pages, 1987.  Presented at The New Brain Technologies and Accelerated Learning Conference at the University of Hawaii, April, 1987.
Mercola, Joseph M. and Kirsch, Daniel L.  The basis for microcurrent electrical therapy in conventional medical practice.  Journal of Advancement in Medicine, 8(2):107-120, 1995.
Overcash, Stephen JThe effect of ROSHI protocol and cranial electrotherapy stimulation on a 9-year-old anxious, dyslexic male with attention deficit disorder: A case studyJournal of Neurotherapy, 9(2):63-77, 2005.
Overcash, Stephen J.  Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in patients suffering from acute anxiety disorders.  American Journal of Electromedicine, 16(1):49-51, 1999.
Overcash, Stephen J, et. al.  The effects of cranial electrotherapy stimulation and multisensory cognitive therapy on the personality and anxiety levels of substance abuse patients.  American Journal of Electromedicine, 6(2):105-111, 1989.
Roth, Peter M, et. al.  Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for controlling pain associated with orthodontic tooth movement.  American Journal of Orthodontics, 90(2):132-138, 1986.
Scherder, E., Knol, D., van Someren, E., Deijen, J-B, Binnekade, R., Tilders, F. and Sergeant, J.  Effects of low-frequency cranial electrostimulation on the rest-activity rhythm and salivary cortisol in Alzheimer's disease.  Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 17(2):101-108, 2003.
Schroeder, M.J., and Barr, R.E.  Quantitative analysis of electroencephalogram during cranial electrotherapy stimulation. Clinical Neurophysiology. 112:2075-2083, 2001.  Doctoral dissertation, The Graduate School of the University of Texas at Austin, 191 pages, 1999.
Smith, Ray B.  The use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.  The Original Internist, 9(3):25-28, September, 2002.
Smith, Ray B. Microcurrent therapies: emerging theories of physiological information processing.   NeuroRehabilitaion, 17(1):3-7, 2002.
Smith, Ray B.  Is microcurrent stimulation effective in pain management? An additional perspective.  American Journal of Pain Management, 11(2):62-66, 2001.
Smith, Ray B.  Cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of stress related cognitive dysfunction, with an eighteen month follow up.  Journal of Cognitive Rehabilitation, 17(6):14-18, 1999.
Smith, Ray B, et. al.  The use of cranial electrotherapy stimulation to block fear perception in phobic patients.  Journal of Current Therapeutic Research, 51(2):249-253, 1992.
Tan, Gabriel, Monga, Trilok, and Thornby, John.  Efficacy of microcurrent electrical stimulation on pain severity, psychological distress, and disability.  American Journal of Pain Management, 10(1):35-44, 2000.  Unedited abstract with rebuttal to the editor.
Tan, G., Rintala, D., Herrington, R., Yang, J., Wade, W., Vasilev, C. and Shanti, B.F.  Treating spinal cord injury pain with cranial electrotherapy stimulation (abstract).  Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 26(3), 2003.  Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Paraplegia Society, Las Vegas, Nevada, September 2-4, 2003.
Tyers, Steve and Smith, Ray B.  A comparison of cranial electrotherapy stimulation alone or with chiropractic therapies in the treatment of fibromyalgia.  The American Chiropractor, 23(2):39-41, 2001.
Voris, Marshall D.  An investigation of the effectiveness of cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of anxiety disorders among outpatient psychiatric patients, impulse control parolees and pedophiles.  Delos Mind/Body Institute, Dallas and Corpus Christi, Texas, 1995.
Voris, Marshall D., et. al., and Good, Shirley.  Treating sexual offenders using cranial electrotherapy stimulation.  Medical Scope Monthly, 3(11):14-18, 1996.
Winick, Reid L.  Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES): a safe and effective low cost means of anxiety control in a dental practice.  General Dentistry, 47(1):50-55, 1999.


The FDA requires a prescription for this device for use within the United States. Several types of doctors and practitioners are authorized to write prescriptions, depending on where they practice, including Medical Doctors, Chiropractors, Dentists, Psychologists, Physical Therapists, Psychiatrists, Naturopaths, Licensed Nurses, Acupuncturists, Osteopaths, and Licensed Mental Health practitioners. not needed in NZ