Oxygen is one of the most important keys to good health,
but not everyone is aware of it. Currently scientists are
examining the role oxygen starvation plays in the development
are the normal oxygen levels in humans?
Quick Answer Mayo Clinic defines the normal human oxygen level as 95 percent
to 100 percent. Levels below 90 percent are considered low. Oxygen levels are
usually measured with a pulse oximeter device attached to the finger; this device
measures the amount of oxygen saturating the blood",,see below
THE IMPORTANCE OF OXYGEN
The air we breathe contains oxygen. Oxygen is the spark
of life. Just as a fire can’t burn without oxygen our cells can’t produce
heat and energy without oxygen. Oxygen is extracted from the air we
breathe by the lungs. It passes into the blood vessels that surround
the lungs and is carried to all the cells of the body by the blood.
Most of the oxygen is carried by the red blood cells, though some of
it is carried by the water in the blood. A deficiency of water means
reduced oxygen delivery by the blood. So important is oxygen, that
even where optimum water, protein, vitamin and mineral intake exists,
ill health will still exist if there’s an oxygen
deficiency. Under-breathing is epidemic among adults.
"When the body has ample oxygen, it produces
enought energy to optimize metabolism and eliminate
accumulated toxic wastes in the tissues. Natural
immunity is achieved when the immune system is not
burdened with heavy "toxic buildup".
Detoxification occurs when oxygen is introduced
into the system."
- Dr. Norman McVea
The mechanics of breathing determine oxygen
supply. Shallow chest breathing gives rise to oxygen deficiencies,
as there are very few blood vessels surrounding the upper
lobes of the lungs. Most of the blood vessels surround
the lower lobes of the lung. Deep, abdominal breathing
is the answer to optimum oxygen levels.
The blood is one of the most important substances
in the body. The blood sustains the vital activities and
it nourishes the body. Therefore, it keeps the function
of the tissues, organs and circulation pathway in good
Dark Field Microscope
When the blood is cleansed, it has oxygen. When it is
dirty, it has more waste or carbon dioxide. The condition
of the blood will determine the function and the condition
of the organs. The heart, the spleen, the lungs, the liver,
the skin, the muscles, all depends on the blood.
Smoking though as we all know is an incredibly dangerous
habit that leads to emphezema, lung cancer, diminished
lung capacity and a lot of health problems that are
directly related to the poor air flow and dirty blood
that you will get from smoking. Give up Smoking
Most people breathe
shallowly. Tight clothing and a lifetime spent rushing,
sitting hunched over desks
doing paperwork, studying,
working computers and getting stressed out produces the bad habits
of shallow breathing. Babies don’t chest breathe. Neither do
drunks. They’re both so relaxed they breathe easily and deeply
and their tummies rise and fall to the rhythm of this breathing.
means insufficient biological energy that can result
in anything from
mild fatigue to life threatening disease.The link
beweeen insufficient oxygen and disease has now
been firmly established. The more oxygen we have
system, the more energy we produce."
- Dr. W. Spencer Way: Journal of the American Association of Physicians
For a majority of us, common sense dictates
that oxygen is one of the most basic, and most important
necessities for life. While we all need to eat, drink and
sleep in order to survive, it is the simple act of breathing,
filling our lungs, and our blood, with oxygen – that,
which is most necessary for life.
However, oxygen does more than simply allow us
to continue our existence.
Before we get to the benefits of oxygen , let’s
look at the increasing problem of oxygen deficiency today
and the symptoms of this problem.
Since some have begun to measure in
1989, there has been a steady decline of free oxygen
in our atmosphere. And while this is nothing more than
expected, since every molecule of additional carbon
dioxide locks up two oxygen atoms, the free oxygen
decline is greater than the carbon dioxide lock-up.
Atmospheric Oxygen Levels
Did you know that the evolution and development of all life on this planet
is directly proportionate to the increase of oxygen levels in the atmosphere?
The majority of people eat food that is excessively
acidic. Their diet emphasizes red meat, coffee and even
sodapop. This causes the development of an acid (less-than-optimally
alkaline) constitution with an excess of positively-charged
hydrogen ions (H+) in the entire system. When excessive
numbers of hydrogen ions are in the tissues, they
combine with and use up oxygen. This reduces the amount of oxygen
available for the primary function of metabolism. Health
An oxygen deficiency plays an important part in cellular
contamination. Oxygen is a powerful detoxifier and when
its quantity is deficient, toxins begin to devastate
bodiiy functions and deplete the body of life-giving energy.
"Air pollution can also accelerate
aging. Procter & Gamble
recently released a report indicating that polluted
air can contain over 200 chemicals that age the skin.
And in a recent study on women’s health, air
pollution from city life added as much as 10 percent
to perceived aging."
The fact is
that in order to be suitable for life – any
life; from plants to people, a planet’s atmosphere
must have gradually higher densities of oxygen, dependent
on the complexity of life supported. Thus, to sustain intelligent
and complex life, such as us, an atmosphere requires high
levels of oxygen.
Unfortunately, since ancient times, with the growing proliferation
of technology in our society, and the decline of natural
sources of oxygen such as trees, the increase of carbon
dioxide in our atmosphere has been steadily matched by
the decrease of oxygen levels.
This means that we aren’t
getting enough oxygen – that
most important of life’s requirements, from the
air we breathe.
So, what does this mean? What
are the real medical concerns that we should bear in mind
when considering the benefits of oxygen therapy?
"The large majority of
those infectious microbes that cause us so much
illness and pain are
ANAEROIC...a big word that means they live and
proliferate best in environments where there is
LITTLE OR NO
- Ed McCabe: Oxygen Therapies: A New Way of Approaching Disease
Oxygen Deficiency Disease
It is no coincidence that diseases such
as cancer have increased dramatically in the last one hundred-and-fifty
|Cancer, above all other diseases, has countless
secondary causes. But, even for cancer, there is
only one prime cause. Summarized in a few words,
the prime cause of cancer is the replacement of the
respiration of oxygen in normal body cells by a fermentation
of sugar. All normal body cells meet their energy
needs by respiration of oxygen, whereas cancer cells
meet their energy needs in great part by fermentation.
All normal body cells are thus obligate aerobes,
whereas all cancer cells are partial anaerobes. From
the standpoint of the physics and chemistry of life
this difference between normal and cancer cells is
so great that one can scarcely picture a greater
difference. Oxygen gas, the donor of energy in plants
and animals is dethroned in the cancer cells and
replaced by an energy yielding reaction of the lowest
living forms, namely, a fermentation of glucose.
The key to the cancer problem is accordingly
the energetics of life, which has been the field
of work of the Dahlem institute since its initiation
by the Rockefeller Foundation about 1930. In
Dahlem the oxygen transferring and hydrogen transferring
enzymes were discovered and chemically isolated.
In Dahlem the fermentation of cancer cells was
discovered decades ago; but only in recent years
has is been demonstrated that cancer cells can
actually grow in the body almost with only the
energy of fermentation. Only today can one submit,
with respect to cancer, all the experiments demanded
by PASTEUR and KOCH as proof of the prime causes
of a disease. If it is true that the replacement
of oxygen-respiration by fermentation is the
prime cause of cancer, then all cancer cells
without exception must ferment, and no normal
growing cell ought to exist that ferments in
during the cancer development the oxygen
- respiration always falls, fermentation appears,
and the highly differentiated cells are transformed
to fermenting anaerobes, which have lost all
their body functions and retain only the now
useless property of growth
Thus, when respiration disappears, life
does not disappear, but the meaning of life disappears,
and what remains are growing machines that destroy
the body in which they grow.
Prime Cause and Prevention of Cancer
(Revised Lindau Lecture) By OTTO WARBURG
of respiration is more frequent than impairment
of fermentation because respiration is more
complicated than fermentation.
impaired respiration can be easily replaced
by fermentation, because both processes have
a common catalyst, the nicotinamide.
consequence of the replacement of respiration
by fermentation is mostly glycolysis, with
death of the cells by lack of energy. Only
if the energy of fermentation is equivalent
to the lost energy of respiration, is the consequence
anaerobiosis. Glycolysis means death by fermentation,
anaerobiosis means life by fermentation.
The physicist MANFRED VON ARDENNE ... recently discovered that cancer
cells owing to their fermentation, are
more acid - inside and on their surface - than normal cells ...
The reason Food Therapies for cancer even
exist today (beyond the fact that they work)
is because someone once saw the connection between
sugar and cancer. There are many food therapies,
but not a single one allows many foods high in
carbohydrates and not a single one allows sugars, BECAUSE SUGAR FEEDS CANCER.
While oxygen deficiency is not the only cause of these
ailments, it is still an influencing factor and treatment
such as hyberbaric oxygen therapy can combat oxygen deficiency
and reduce the risk of developing cancer and other major
The very latest oxygen meter
As discussed by DR. Stephen Levine and Dr. Parris Kidd,
oxygen is the source of life and energy to all cells. Body
abuse through eating and drinking habits (including pollutants
and toxic preservatives in our water and food), air pollution,
use of drugs and lack of exercise can greatly reduce the
amount of oxygen available to the cells. When there is
insufficient oxygen to support the health of a cell, the
cell turns to another source of energy called fermentation.
This fermentation results in an anaerobic environment,
which upsets the metabolism of the cell, and it no longer
participates in the healthy functioning of the body. It
causes the cells to start manufacturing improper chemicals,
and soon a whole group of cells are unhealthy and weak.
They lose their natural immune system.
Dr. Parris Kidd has stated that: "Oxygen plays a
pivotal role in the functioning of the immune system; ie
resistant to disease, bacteria, and viruses." Dr.
Stephen Levine has also stated that "We can look at
oxygen deficiency as the single greatest cause of all disease." Thus
the development of a shortage of oxygen in the blood could
very well be the starting point for the loss of the immune
system and the beginning of the feared health problems
such as cancer, leukemia, AIDS, candida, seizures, and
The renowned biochemist and Nobel Prize laureate, Dr.Otto
Warburg, confirm this research. He stressed the importance
of oxygen especially in its connection to cancer. Dr. Warburg
summarized by saying, "The prime cause of cancer is
the replacement of the normal oxygen respiration of body
cells by an anaerobic cell respiration."
Dr. Freibott explains why oxygen and oxidation is so vital: "It
is the lack of oxygen in proper amounts in the system that
prevents oxidation and oxygenation, which energized the
cells to biological regeneration. These Processes are the
foundation of life and death.
"If the normal environment of the cell can be maintained,
it will not lose its growth and reproduction potential.
Sub-oxygen creates sub-oxidation."
An oxygen deficiency plays an important part in cellular
contamination. Oxygen is a powerful detoxifier, and when
its quantity is deficient, toxins begin to devastate body
functions and delete the body of life-giving energy.
"Without oxygen, there can be no nourishment." Without
nourishment, no heat and no energy can be created, and
the body cannot purify itself. the unhindered development
of this metabolic process results in a circumstance that
we call sound health.
Detoxification and Cleansing Effects
Some known medical symptoms
of oxygen deficiency are:
viral and parasitic infection
proneness to common infections such as the flu
"Lack of oxygen
clearly plays a major role in causing cells to
become cancerous." - Dr. Harry
Goldblatt: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Oxygen shortage,Yeast,infections andl
There is currently
a virtual epidemic of common yeast infections (Candida
Albicans). These take root with relative
ease in an oxygen-deprived body. In this environment, yeast
cells generate large quantities of acetaldehyde, causing
cellular damage. Acetaldehyde in the intestinal wall and
liverdisrupt intestinal absorption and impair white and
red blood cell functions.
When yeast cells are deprived of oxygen, they become even
more resistant to immune defences, since they are capable
of anaerobic (no-oxygen) metabolism. A !ow oxygen
level is the major contributing factor to yeast susceptibility.
In addition, oxygen-starved tissues can generate the
following disorders: heart disease, strokes, diabetes and
peripheral arterial deficiency. An inadequate oxygen
supply will also contribute to memory loss, dizziness,
loss of balance, and depression in older persons with decreased
cerebral blood flow.
Finger Pulse Oximeter and Heart Rate Monitor
Oxygen levels are also vital in maintaining
the balance of "friendly" bacteria over disease-causing bacteria,
and other organisms in the body.
one of the costs of modern life being the reduction
of atmospheric oxygen levels through pollution in our air, oxygen
can counteract the effects of this on your day-to-day
life and provide the following benefits that you will notice:
mind and stable nervous system
recovery time after physical exertion
remedy for headaches and hangovers
against chronic fatigue
and regular sleeping patterns
provides 90% of our energy. With only
10% coming from food and water, this really drives
home the point of how important oxygen is in our day-to-day
you Getting Enough Oxygen ?
Oxygen plays an important role in the
body acting as a guardian and protector against unfriendly
bacteria and disease organisms. One of oxygen's major functions
is disintegration. Rubble, garbage, toxins, refuse, debris,
and anything useless are destroyed by oxygen and carried
out of the system. Just as a clean house holds little interest
to passing flies, likewise, likewise, an oxygen rich body
is a difficult fortress to assail.
you can measure your Blood Oxygen Levels
Do you feel tired all the time even
though you get eight hours of sleep a night? Do your
muscles throb every time you complete a workout even
though you exercise every day; or do you experience occasional
irritability for no apparent reason? If you answered
yes to any of these questions, your problem may be a
lack of adequate levels of oxygen in the blood.
were designed to operate in an environment
that existed hundreds of years ago -- when 30 to
40 percent of the air breathed was oxygen. Due in a large
part to pollution, today, oxygen levels are about half
that - 20 to 22 percent in most U.S. cities; as low
as 15 percent in others.
According to Ed McCabe, author of "Flood
Your Body With Oxygen," by living in an oxygen-deficient environment
and not feeding our cells the proper oxygen and nutrients
needed for cleaning out toxins and wastes, our body fluids
and blood can become dirty and toxic. A lack of oxygen
to our cells weakens our immune system, which may lead
to viral infections, damaged cells, bacterial growths,
inflamed joints, serious heart and circulatory problems,
toxic buildup in blood and premature aging.
However, if the cells in our bodies are rich in oxygen,
mutated cells may be less able to reproduce Other benefits
of having adequate levels of oxygen in our systems: increased
energy; the ability to maintain healthy cholesterol levels;
enhanced brain function; a reduction in stress; the ability
to overcome fatigue; and looking and feeling younger.
you can measure your Blood Oxygen Levels
Pulse oximetry provides estimates of arterial oxyhemoglobin
saturation (SaO2) by utilizing selected wavelengths of
light to noninvasively determine the saturation of oxyhemoglobin
Pulse oximetry is a simple non-invasive method of monitoring
the percentage of haemoglobin (Hb) which is saturated with
oxygen The principle of pulse oximetry is based on the
red and infrared light absorption characteristics of oxygenated
and deoxygenated hemoglobin. Oxygenated hemoglobin absorbs
more infrared light and allows more red light to pass through.
Deoxygenated (or reduced) hemoglobin absorbs more red light
and allows more infrared light to pass through. Red light
is in the 600-750 nm wavelength light band. Infrared light
is in the 850-1000 nm wavelength light band.
|"Many scientists were
stunned recently when it was revealed that air
bubbles trapped in fossilized
amber had been analyzed and found to contain oxygen
levels of 38%. Yet today it is well known that
the average oxygen content of air is only about
In other words, since the early history of the
earth, it appears there has been an estimated 50%
the average oxygen content of air we breathe!" More
your Blood Oxygen levels are low?
Ozone is one of the most energetic and useful agents known
to science. Its therapeutic action is due to oxygenation
of the blood by the loose molecule (free radical) of oxygen
in the O3 compound. It is carried to the various organs
and tissues of the body and absorbed, thus oxidizing the
waste products, and facilitating their elimination. In
other words, ozone increases the metabolism without the
expenditure of vital energy and special stress should be
laid on the fact that ozone is a NATURAL remedy.>>>Dr.
Some scientific studies have found that increasing
the amount of oxygen in the body alkalizes the it and
creates an environment where disease cannot exist. A
good way to get oxygen into the body is through water.
Past tests have shown that consuming oxygenated water
increased the level of the oxygen in the blood. When
the blood supply has more oxygen diseases have trouble
"Workers can become asphyxiated by
exposure to atmospheres deficient of oxygen, that can
lead to serious injury or loss
of life. Oxygen is the only component of the air we breathe
capable of supporting life. Air is composed of approximately
21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen and other trace components.
is the greatest hazard associated with nitrogen
and other inert gases, such as argon and helium. However,
the addition of any gas, except oxygen, to air reduces
oxygen concentration through displacement and dilution.
Breathing as little as one or two breaths of air containing
too little oxygen can have serious and immediate effects,
including unconsciousness. Because there are no warning
signs of reduced oxygen concentrations, these environments
are extremely dangerous.
Dangers of oxygen-deficient
Effects of oxygen-deficient atmospheres
Effects of exposure to low oxygen concentrations can
include giddiness, mental
confusion, loss of judgment, loss of coordination, weakness,
loss of consciousness and death.
The immediate effects of low oxygen environments are
due to our body’s oxy-
gen transport system. Blood absorbs oxygen from the air
in our lungs to fuel
the cells in our bodies. The brain is the body organ
most sensitive to the lack
of oxygen. Within five seconds after inhaling only a
few breaths of oxygen-
free gas, there is a rapid drop in the oxygen concentration
of the blood. Mental
failure and coma follow a few seconds later. Symptoms
or warnings are gener-
ally absent, but even if present, the loss of mental
competence, weakness, loss
of coordination, or fainting prevents victims from helping
themselves or even
summoning help. Death follows in just two to four minutes.
Warning: Exposure to atmospheres containing less than
10% oxygen can
rapidly overcome a person and bring about unconsciousness
warning so they are incapable of helping themselves.
Lack of sufficient
oxygen can cause serious injury or death." source
Test the Oxygen
levels in your immediate enviroment
NEW Oxygen Detector Meter
Oxygen(O2) Concentration Detector
with LCD Display & Sound-light
Alarm air quality monitor analyzer
Test : oxygen
Measurement range: 0~25%VOL
Measurement error: ±2%
Preheating time: <10 seconds
Response time: <15 seconds
Environmental temperature measurement: -15 ~ 50 Celsius
Alarm mode: sound alarm, light alarm, vibration alarm
Alarm: low concentration 19.5%VOL yellow warning light
High concentration 23.5%VOL red warning lights flashing
(alarm concentration can also be set up)
Continuous working time: 6 hours (with a slight change
in the working state)
Power: 3x1.5V AAA battery(battery is not included)
Audio tip: the higher the frequency of the beep sound,
the higher the concentration is.
Product size: 120*65*25mm
1 x Oxygen O2 Gas Detector(battery is not included)
is a dangerous blood oxygen level?
Blood oxygen levels under 90 percent are
considered low and warrant immediate medical attention,
according to the
Mayo Clinic. A dangerous blood oxygen level, also called
hypoxemia, occurs when a lower-than-average level of oxygen
is circulating from the blood to the cells and tissues
of the body. Normal blood oxygen levels are within the
95 to 100 percent range. "
According to WebMD, symptoms of low blood
oxygen levels include shortness of breath, fast heart rates,
sweating, wheezing, mental confusion, coughing and changes
in the color of the skin
What are the normal oxygen levels in humans?
Quick Answer Mayo Clinic defines the normal human oxygen
level as 95 percent to 100 percent. Levels below 90 percent
low. Oxygen levels are usually measured with a pulse oximeter
device attached to the finger; this device measures the
amount of oxygen saturating the blood
7 DAY SPECIAL
Finger Pulse Oximeter and Heart Rate
Approved assorted colors
Accurate oxygen saturation and pulse rate
data in seconds
Easy to use; automatically turns on/off with finger insertion/removal
Compact size fits easily into a pocket
Display Method: Color OLED display, two
The product is small in size, light in
weight (total weight is about 50g including
batteries) and convenient to carry
Power consumption of the product is low
and the two originally-equipped two AAA batteries
can be operated continuously for 30 hours
Low Voltage warning will be indicated
in Visual window when battery voltage is
so low that normal operation of the oximeter
might be influenced
The product will automatically be powered
off when no singnal is in the product for
longer than 8 seconds
The product is suitable for use in family
hospital and clinical , it can be used before
or after sports .
Display 64K color OLED
SpO2 Measurement range: 35~99%
Resolution: ± 1%
Accuracy: ± 2% (70%~99%), unspecified
Pulse rate Measurement range: 30~255 bp
cells nor deadly viruses or bacteria can survive
in an oxygen-rich environment. People who have tried
drinking ordinary tap water and then tried oxygenated
water say that they feel a huge difference. Energy
levels, alertness and well being are all reported
to have been positively affected by drinking oxygenated
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Provide strong antioxidant
- Use it anywhere, anytime to produce
Source CD12V / 1A Rechargable Batteries
water producing: 3 minutes, 5 minutes and
10 mins Dissolved Hydrogen : 0.6ppm
balance: 7.6 (slightly more alkaline, stabilizing
the dissolved hydrogen)
: -200 to -300 (reducing/antioxidant)
light means standby and finished procution,
blue color means producing water
(Relative Hydrogen): 1 to 5 (reducing/antioxidant)
Hydrogen Water for the Whole Family
Explanation of Terms:
TDS = Total Dissolved Solids is a measure of the combined content of all organic
and inorganic substances contained in a liquid. High TDS levels indicate "hard
water", that can lead to scale buildup. Lower (10 - 60 pps) TDS is "soft
water" and it is considered the best water for drinking and proper hydration.
Micro-clustered* water structure means smaller,
4 to 6 molecules per clusters.
That is an ideal, smaller cluster size, that can be absorbed more easily via
pH = negative logarithm of hydrogen-ion concentration
and it shows whether a solution is acidic or alkaline.
pH values range from 0 to 14. Neutral, pure water has a value of pH = 7.
Acidic solutions have pH = 0 to 7, alkaline solutions have pH = 7 to 14 values.
ORP = Oxidation / Reduction Potential (Reduction
Potential or Redox Potential) is a measure of tendency
of chemical species to either acquire or donate electrons.
Oxidative agents (like free radicals) need and acquire
electrons. Reductive agents (antioxidants) have and
donate electrons. ORP is measured in millivolts (mV)
Positive values (+200 mV to +500 mV) represent oxidation
Neutral value is around +200 mV, assuming neutral pH=7 value.
Lower and negative values (+200 mV to -500 mV) represent the greater reduction
rH2 = Relative Hydrogen Score shows the true reduction
potential, electron concentration / electron activity
in a solution
Molecular Bases of
Hydrogen Effects for the scientificaly
"Effects of hydrogen on various diseases have
been attributed to four major molecular mechanisms:
a specific scavenging activity of? hydroxyl radical,
a scavenging activity of peroxynitrite, alterations
of gene expressions, and signal-modulating activities.
The four mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and
some of them may be causally associated with other
The first molecular mechanism identified for hydrogen
was its specific scavenging activity of hydroxyl
radical . Indeed, oxidative stress markers like
8-OHdG, 4-hydroxyl-2-nonenal (4-HNE), malondialdehyde
(MDA), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances
(TBARSs) are decreased in all the examined patients
and rodents. As hydrogen can easily dissipate in
exhalation, hydrogen in drinking water is able to
stay in human and rodent bodies in less than 10?min
(unpublished data). Hydrogen, however, can bind to
glycogen, and the dwell time of hydrogen is prolonged
in rat liver after food intake . A question still
remains if mice and humans can take a sufficient
amount of hydrogen that efficiently scavenges hydroxyl
radicals that are continuously generated in normal
and disease states.
Another molecular mechanism of hydrogen effect
is its peroxynitrite-() scavenging activity .
Although hydrogen cannot eliminate peroxynitrite
as efficiently as hydroxyl radical in vitro ,
hydrogen can efficiently reduce nitric-oxide-(NO-)
induced production of nitrotyrosine in rodents [34–38].
NO is a gaseous molecule that also exerts therapeutic
effects including relaxation of blood vessels and
inhibition of platelet aggregation . NO, however,
is also toxic at higher concentrations because NO
leads to -mediated production of nitrotyrosine, which
compromises protein functions. A part of hydrogen
effects may thus be attributed to the reduced production
Expression profiling of rat liver demonstrated
that hydrogen has a minimal effect on expression
levels of individual genes in normal rats . Gene
ontology analysis, however, revealed that oxidoreduction-related
genes were upregulated. In disease models of rodents,
expression of individual genes and proteins is analyzed.
In many disease models, hydrogen downregulated proinflammatory
cytokines including tumor necrosis-factor-(TNF-)??,
interleukin-(IL-) 1ß, IL-6, IL-12, interferon-(IFN-)??,
and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) [4, 23, 24,
36, 41–59]. Hydrogen also downregulated nuclear
factors including nuclear factor kappa B (NFB), JNK,
and proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) [24,
44, 50, 55, 60–63]. Caspases were also downregulated
[10, 55–57, 62, 64, 65]. Other interesting
molecules studied to date include vascular endothelial
growth factor (VEGF) ; MMP2 and MMP9 ; brain
natriuretic peptide ; intercellular-adhesion-molecule-1
(ICAM-1) and myeloperoxidase ; B-cell lymphoma
2 (Bcl2) and Bcl2-associated X protein (Bax) ;
MMP3 and MMP13 ; cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), neuronal
nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and connexins 30 and
43 ; ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule
1 (Iba1) ; fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)
. Most molecules, however, are probably passengers
that are secondarily changed by hydrogen administration,
and some are potentially direct targets of hydrogen
effects, which need to be identified in the future.
Using rat RBL-2H3 mast cells, we demonstrated that
hydrogen attenuates phosphorylation of FceRI-associated
Lyn and its downstream signaling molecules .
As phosphorylation of Lyn is again regulated by the
downstream signaling molecules and makes a loop of
signal transduction pathways, we could not identify
the exact target of hydrogen. Our study also demonstrated
that hydrogen ameliorates an immediate-type allergic
reaction not by radical-scavenging activity but by
direct modulation of signaling pathway(s). In addition,
using murine RAW264 macrophage cells, we demonstrated
that hydrogen reduces LPS/IFN-induced NO production
. We found that hydrogen inhibits phosphorylation
of ASK1 and its downstream signaling molecules, p38
MAP kinase, JNK, and IB??without affecting ROS production
by NADPH oxidase. Both studies point to a notion
that hydrogen is a gaseous signal modulator. More
animal and cells models are expected to be explored
to confirm that hydrogen exerts its beneficial effect
as a signal modulator." Source
1: Ohta. Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine:
potential of molecular hydrogen for preventive and
therapeutic applications. Curr Pharm Des 17:2241-52
Pulse oximetry is considered a safe procedure, but
because of device limitations, false-negative results
for hypoxemia(4) and/or false-positive results for
normoxemia(15,16) or hyperoxemia(17,18) may lead
to inappropriate treatment of the patient.