General & Post Operative Healing Studies
Effects of magnetic field on nereve regeneration in rats. NEW
Static magnets prevent leg ulcer recurrence NEW
Accelerated closure of biopsy-type wounds by mechanical stimulation. NEW
The influence of permanent magnetic field therapy on wound healing
Morphological evaluation of fibroblasts after stimulation with static magnetic field & PEMF
Electromagnetic fields and magnets - treatment for musculoskeletal disorders
Clinical effectiveness of magnetic field therapy - a review of the literature
Evolution of magnetic therapy from alternative to traditional medicine
Pulsed magnetotherapy in Czechoslovakia - a review
Beneficial effects of electromagnetic fields

Effect of weak, interrupted sinusoidal low frequency magnetic field on neural regeneration in rats: functional evaluation.
Bervar M.
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Maribor General Hospital, Maribor, Slovenia.

A study of the effect of weak, interrupted sinusoidal low frequency magnetic field (ISMF) stimulation on regeneration of the rat sciatic nerve was carried out. In the experiment, 60 Wistar rats were used: 24 rats underwent unilateral sciatic nerve transection injury and immediate surgical nerve repair, 24 rats underwent unilateral sciatic nerve crush injury, and the remaining 12 rats underwent a sham surgery. Half of the animals (n = 12) with either sciatic nerve lesion were randomly chosen and exposed between a pair of Helmholtz coils for 3 weeks post-injury, 4 h/day, to an interrupted (active period to pause ratio = 1.4 s/0.8 s) sinusoidal 50 Hz magnetic field of 0.5 mT. The other half of the animals (n = 12) and six rats with sham surgery were used for two separate controls. Functional recovery was followed for 6 weeks for the crush injuries and 7(1/2) months for the transection injuries by video assisted footprint analysis in static conditions and quantified using a recently revised static sciatic index (SSI) formula. We ascertained that the magnetic field influence was weak, but certainly detectable in both injury models. The accuracy of ISMF influence detection, determined by the one-way repeated measures ANOVA test, was better for the crush injury model: F(1, 198) = 9.0144, P = .003, than for the transection injury model: F(1, 198) = 6.4826, P = .012. The Student-Newman-Keuls range test for each response day yielded significant differences (P < .05) between the exposed and control groups early in the beginning of functional recovery and later on from the points adjacent to the beginning of the plateau, or 95% of functional recovery, and the end of observation. These differences probably reflect the ISMF systemic effect on the neuron cell bodies and increased and more efficient reinnervation of the periphery. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 15887258 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Static magnets prevent leg ulcer recurrence: savings for the NHS?
Eccles N.
The Chiron Clinic, Harley Street Practice, London, UK.

The objectives of this survey were to examine the effectiveness of a static magnet device--4UlcerCare--in preventing recurrence of leg ulcers after healing. Two hundred and eighty-nine randomly selected purchasers of 4UlcerCare were telephoned and asked to complete a short questionnaire. Our focus was on the 211 respondents who had ulcers that had already healed. The average age of subjects was 70.6 years and sex distribution was 55% female to 45% male. Mean duration of leg ulcers before using 4UlcerCare was 4.4 years. Sixty-five per cent of those surveyed had had ulcer recurrence before using 4UlcerCare, with a mean of 2.41 episodes of ulceration. This was close to the expected recurrence rate in the population of 67%. Using 4UlcerCare daily, these respondents' ulcers had healed within an average of 3.57 months. The survey took place an average of 19.94 months after healing. The manufacturers advise wearing 4UlcerCare daily post-healing, and of those respondents that had, none had suffered any recurrence. Extrapolating these results across the health economy, an estimate has been made of a potential pound 153.7 million per year saving on leg ulcer care to the NHS.

PMID: 16607239 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Accelerated closure of biopsy-type wounds by mechanical stimulation.
Irion GL, Stone S, Fischer T, Finch VP, Phillips LR, Frederickson C.
Department of Physical Therapy, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a device designed to provide low-intensity, low-frequency mechanical stimulation improves healing time of acute wounds.

DESIGN: Repeated measures using mechanical stimulation on one side of a rat and sham stimulation on the contralateral side.

SETTING: Academic animal facility.

PARTICIPANTS: Six male Sprague-Dawley rats, approximately 400 g.

INTERVENTION: Mechanical stimulation of 4-mm biopsy wounds in rats was produced through the use of permanent magnets cyclically attracted and repelled by activation of an electromagnet by a square wave generator at a frequency of 1 Hz and a force equivalent to 64 mm Hg pressure.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Days to complete closure of 4-mm biopsy punch wounds.

MAIN RESULTS: This form of stimulation reduced time to close the biopsy wounds by nearly 50%. Mechanically stimulated wounds closed in 3.8 +/- 1.6 days (mean +/- SD) compared with 6.8 +/- 1.9 days for sham-stimulated wounds (P = .0002).

CONCLUSION: Production of a mechanical stimulation device with a miniaturized controller and power source and trials on humans are needed to determine the efficacy and potential cost savings of such a device in the management of wounds.

PMID: 16557056 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



The influence of permanent magnetic field therapy on wound healing in suction lipectomy patients: a double-blind study.
Man D; Man B; Plosker H

Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Laser Center, Boca Raton, Fla., USA.

The authors present their experience with the healing influence of permanent magnets on postoperative wounds. The responses of 20 patients who underwent suction lipectomy and postoperative negative magnetic field therapy were studied in a double-blind fashion. Magnets in the form of patches (10 patients) or sham magnet patches (10 patients) were placed over the operative region in each of the patients. Pain, edema, and discoloration (ecchymosis) were evaluated at 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14 days postoperatively. Our results show that the treatment group had significant reductions in pain on postoperative days 1 through 7, in edema on days 1 through 4, and in discoloration on days 1 through 3 when compared with the control group. These results demonstrated that commercially available magnets have a positive influence on the postoperative healing process in suction lipectomy patients.

Source: Plast Reconstr Surg 1999 Dec;104(7):2261-6; discussion 2267-8.


Morphological evaluation of MRC-5 fibroblasts after stimulation with static magnetic field and pulsating electromagnetic field.
Pate K, Benghuzzi H, Tucci M, Puckett A, Cason Z.

University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA.

The quality of tissue repair and the speed with which that repair can be accomplished are the two major variables in the healing of any injury. Today, magnetic field exposure to traumatized areas has shown to be a promising tool in the healing process. The exact mode of action by which radiating and unchanging magnetic fields still has to be elucidated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphology of MRC-5 fibro-blasts after stimulation with static and pulsating magnetic fields. Under sterile environment, a total of 24 wells were loaded with 50,000 MRC-5 cells each and further divided into three groups. Groups 1 and 2 were exposed to magnetic fields, static and pulsating respectively. Group 3 wells were unexposed and served as the control group. The cells were monitored at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours and representative views were captured using digital analysis techniques. The live cells were screened for cellular mobility, cell distribution, and cellular morphology (size, shape, lysis, and background). After 72 hours, the supernatants and cells of all three groups were collected and MDA analysis was performed to determine possible cellular damage. Group 1 cells continued to grow at a reasonable rate, but there was substantial cell membrane damage (high MDA levels, p < 0.05). Group 2 cells appeared to be very stressed under these conditions especially at the initial phase (24 hours). In conclusion, the use of pulsating magnetic stimulation can be beneficial in the healing process of soft tissues.

Biomed Sci Instrum. 2003;39:460-5.


Electromagnetic fields and magnets. Investigational treatment for musculoskeletal disorders.
Trock DH.

Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Certain pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) affect the growth of bone and cartilage in vitro, with potential application as an arthritis treatment. PEMF stimulation is already a proven remedy for delayed fractures, with potential clinical application for osteoarthritis, osteonecrosis of bone, osteoporosis, and wound healing. Static magnets may provide temporary pain relief under certain circumstances. In both cases, the available data is limited. The mechanisms underlying the use of PEMF and magnets are discussed.

Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2000 Feb;26(1):51-62, viii.


Clinical effectiveness of magnetic field therapy - a review of the literature.
Quittan M, Schuhfried O, Wiesinger GF, Fialka-Moser V.

Universitatsklinik fur Physikalische Medizin und Rehabilitation, Wien.

To verify the efficacy of electromagnetic fields on various diseases we conducted a computer-assisted search of the pertinent literature. The search was performed with the aid of the Medline and Embase database (1966-1998) and reference lists. Clinical trials with at least one control group were selected. The selection criteria were met by 31 clinical studies. 20 trials were designed double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled. The studies were categorised by indications. Electromagnetic fields were applied to promote bone-healing, to treat osteoarthritis and inflammatory diseases of the musculoskeletal system, to alleviate pain, to enhance healing of ulcers and to reduce spasticity. The action on bone healing and pain alleviation of electromagnetic fields was confirmed in most of the trials. In the treatment of other disorders the results are contradictory. Application times varied between 15 minutes and 24 hours per day for three weeks up to eighteen months. There seems to be a relationship between longer daily application time and positive effects particular in bone-healing. Patients were treated with electromagnetic fields of 2 to 100 G (0.2 mT to 10 mT) with a frequency between 12 and 100 Hz. Optimal dosimetry for therapy with electromagnetic fields is yet not established.

Acta Med Austriaca. 2000;27(3):61-8.


Evolution of magnetic therapy from alternative to traditional medicine.
Vallbona C, Richards T.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Static or electromagnetic fields have been used for centuries to control pain and other biologic problems, but scientific evidence of their effect had not been gathered until recently. This article explores the value of magnetic therapy in rehabilitation medicine in terms of static magnetic fields and time varying magnetic fields (electromagnetic). A historical review is given and the discussion covers the areas of scientific criteria, modalities of magnetic therapy, mechanisms of the biologic effects of magnetic fields, and perspectives on the future of magnetic therapy.

Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 1999 Aug;10(3):729-54.


Pulsed magnetotherapy in Czechoslovakia - a review.
Jerabek J.

National Institute of Public Health, Praha, Czech Republic.

Pulsed magnetotherapy has been used in Czechoslovakia for more than one decade. It has been proved that this type of physical therapy is very efficient mainly in rheumatic diseases, in paediatrics (sinusitis, enuresis), and in balneological care of patients suffering from ischaemic disorders of lower extremities. Promising results have also been obtained in neurological diseases (multiple sclerosis, spastic conditions) and in ophthalmology, in degenerative diseases of the retina.

Rev Environ Health. 1994 Apr-Jun;10(2):127-34.


Beneficial effects of electromagnetic fields.
Bassett CA.

Bioelectric Research Center, Columbia University, Riverdale, New York 10463.

Selective control of cell function by applying specifically configured, weak, time-varying magnetic fields has added a new, exciting dimension to biology and medicine. Field parameters for therapeutic, pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMFs) were designed to induce voltages similar to those produced, normally, during dynamic mechanical deformation of connective tissues. As a result, a wide variety of challenging musculoskeletal disorders have been treated successfully over the past two decades. More than a quarter million patients with chronically ununited fractures have benefitted, worldwide, from this surgically non-invasive method, without risk, discomfort, or the high costs of operative repair. Many of the athermal bioresponses, at the cellular and subcellular levels, have been identified and found appropriate to correct or modify the pathologic processes for which PEMFs have been used. Not only is efficacy supported by these basic studies but by a number of double-blind trials. As understanding of mechanisms expands, specific requirements for field energetics are being defined and the range of treatable ills broadened. These include nerve regeneration, wound healing, graft behavior, diabetes, and myocardial and cerebral ischemia (heart attack and stroke), among other conditions. Preliminary data even suggest possible benefits in controlling malignancy.

J Cell Biochem. 1993 Apr;51(4):387-93.