Frequently Asked Questions about
Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES)
What is Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation?
CES (Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation) is a process which utilizes
minute electrical stimulation for therapeutic treatment of anxiety,
depression, and insomnia.
What does CES feel like?
Applied through electrodes to the area between the mastoids and the
jaw, the sensation felt by the individual is normally one of relaxation.
Can I use it while I sleep? If there is high stress or anxiety just
prior to treatment, the individual may go to sleep while using CES,
particularly if in a reclining chair or bed. Sleep at the time of application
is not required to benefit from CES, although individuals frequently
report an improvement in the quality of their night time sleep.
How does CES work?
As with a number of medicines, the mechanism of action (how it works)
of CES is not fully understood. Research has led to the hypothesis
that it has a mild effect on the hypothalmic area of the brain. Researchers
also have noticed rapid increases in serotonin, also associated with
relaxation and calmness, and decreases in cortisol, one of the primary
stress-related biochemicals. Interestingly, CES also increases levels
of norepinephrine and dopamine, both associated with alertness and
feelings of pleasure. This may be why so many CES users report feeling
both relaxed and alert.
What is CES used for?
CES was originally developed in the Soviet Union in 1949, it's primary
focus being the treatment of sleep disorders, hence it's initial designation
as "electrosleep." Treatment of insomnia, however, has been
overshadowed by psychiatric application for depression and anxiety.
Is CES dangerous?
No negative effects or major contraindications have been found from
the use of CES to date, either in the US or other parts of the world.
PRECAUTIONS: Optimally CES treatment should be applied in early hours
after awakening and while in relaxed and quiet environment. Do not
use CES within three hours of bedtime. Exercise caution when driving
or operating machinery for one hour after treatment. Do not apply electrodes
directly over the eyes or the carotid sinus area (upper side of the
neck below the ear and behind the jaw). Do not sleep during CES treatment.
FREQUENCY AND DURATION: Optimal CES treatments are 30 minutes two
times daily for the first three weeks but one 60 minute session may
be substituted. In some studies 40 minutes I time per day, five days
per week has been found to be adequate. After first two weeks of daily
treatment application may be reduced to maintenance level ranging from
one 20-minute application every other day to one 20-minute application
every three days. Treatment should not be discontinued as ineffective
until 2 weeks of twice daily applications have been completed.
FOLLOWING CES TREATMENT: Use caution in operating a motor vehicle
or other potentially dangerous mercenary until you get used to how
you feel after CES treatment. We suggest you take it easy and avoid
stressful situation for at least an hour after CES treatment. Try and
move slowly, taking your time and breathing calmly and deeply into
your abdomen. We also suggest you drink at least 2 full glasses of
water in the first hour after CES treatment. Make a note of any unusual
or interesting phenomena you experience and discuss these with your
doctor at your next session or before is necessary.
COMBINED USE WITH MEDICATIONS: Cranial Electric Stimulation can be
used in conjunction with analgesic, psychoactive and vascular medications.
In general CES tends to potentiate, or cause an increase in, the effectiveness
of these medications. Medication dosage should thus be closely monitored
and reduced is necessary. Medication for high blood pressure should
be monitored carefully as it may need to be reduced.
Insomnia: Reduced frequency of treatment needed (20 minutes once daily
tapering after two weeks to 3 treatments weekly). Optimal treatment
time during circadian rise immediately preceding sleep (e.g. 4-7
p.m. if bedtime 10:00 p.m.) Primary treatment affect is in Stage
4 (delta) sleep. Ambiguous REM occasionally occurs during treatment
Headache Treat headache as soon as possible after first warning signs
and not later than one hour after onset. Patch electrodes should
be placed on alternate sides of temple. Can be used in conjunction
with analgesic and vascular medications.
Clinical Effect In: Response to CES treatment is very individual.
Treatment effects tend to be cumulative. Relief for anxiety conditions,
insomnia and attentional problem is normally experienced by the second
treatment with stable recovery by the seventh treatment. Mild depression
and mild chronic pain conditions generally remit by the end of the
tenth day of treatment. When brain neurotransmitters are back in balance
no further improvement will be noticed. Maintenance treatments are
sometimes needed at 2 to 3 twenty-minute sessions per week.
Adverse Reactions: Generally well tolerated. Some persons may experience
initial anxiety related to novelty of the CES procedure and, or pulsating
feeling generated by electrodes against the skin. Other adverse reactions:
Dizziness (0.15%), skin irritation (0.12%), headaches (0.22%). Rare
paradoxical reactions such as hyperexcited states, increased anxiety,
and sleep disturbance have occurred. Some CES studies have demonstrated
a exacerbation of preexisting depression in some individuals. No impairment
of consciousness or reaction time has been reported in clinical studies.
No studies have been conducted on long-term use of this product. If
you suspect that an herb or other supplement is making you sick, call
the FDA’s MedWatch hotline at 800-332-1088 or contact the agency
via it’s website at www.fda.gov/medwatch.
Known Interactive Effects: CES treatment may interact with over-the-counter,
herbal, hormonal, or enzymatic medications prescribed for the treatment
of psychological conditions including anxiety, depression, or insomnia
including drugs which affect brain serotonin levels or for pain and
other neurologic conditions. In such situations close supervision
by psychological or medical personnel is recommended.
Warnings: The information above is provided for educational purposes
and may not be construed as a medical prescription or as a substitute
for the advice of your physician. Do not use this product without first
consulting your physician especially if you are pregnant or lactating.
You should regularly consult your physician in matters regarding your
health and particularly in respect to symptoms and conditions which
may require diagnosis or medical attention. Reevaluate use of this
product after 6 months.
. What is the history of CES?
A. At least two millennium ago, physicians used electric eels to relieve
pain. Experimentation with low intensity electrical stimulation of
the brain was first reported by Drs. Leduc and Rouxeau of France in
1902. Research on using what is now referred to as cranial electrotherapy
stimulation (CES) for treatment of anxiety began in the Soviet Union
during the 1950's, its primary focus being the treatment of sleep disorders,
hence its initial designation as "electrosleep." Treatment
of insomnia was soon overshadowed, however, by psychiatric application
for depression and anxiety. Since then, it has been referred to by
many other names, the most popular being transcranial electrotherapy
(TCET) and neuroelectric therapy (NET).
East European nations soon picked up CES as a treatment modality and
its use spread worldwide. by the late 1960's, animal studies of CES
had begun in the United States at the University of Tennessee and what
is now the University of Wisconsin Medical school.
These were soon followed by human clinical trials at the University
of Texas Medical school in San Antonio and the University of Wisconsin
Medical School. More studies have followed. At present, the number
of human studies stands at 103. In addition, there are 18 experimental
animal studies, all of which attest to the safety of CES.
CES has been an international treatment modality for more than 50
years. Thousands of people worldwide continue to receive its benefits.
The most extensive work on CES continues in Russia at the Pavlov Institute
in St. Petersburg. But by no means is its use restricted to that part
of the world. Current estimates are that there are between 50- 100,000
units in use globally. From a broad reading of published literature,
no negative effects or major contraindications have been found from
the use of CES to date, either in the U.S. or other parts of the world.
Q. Who could benefit most from the use of CES?
A. First and foremost, those suffering from stress in the form of
depression, anxiety, and insomnia who seek an effective non- pharmacologic
alternative. Secondly, those suffering from illnesses where stress
constitutes a prime symptom.
According to the American Academy of Family Physicians, stress-related
problems account for 80-85% of all visits to medical offices. Research
indicates that 80-85% of all diseases are caused by stress which plays
a major role in aggravating up to 90% of all illnesses and some part
in the development of every disease, from cancer to the common cold.
It has been estimated that 80% of the populace of the United States
react to life adjustment problems with the "flight" or "fight" anxiety
reaction. And that a similar percentage of our hospitals are filled
with persons who have channeled anxiety released energies into their
bodies resulting in psychogenic illnesses.
Among those illnesses are: substance abuse withdrawal syndrome (alcohol,
street drugs, nicotine, prescription drugs), chronic fatigue syndrome
including fybromyalgia, pre-menstrual syndrome, attention deficit disorder
and hyperactivity, migraine and tension headaches, TMJ dysfunction,
chronic pain, pre-competitive and performance anxiety, panic disorders,
tic dolereaux, bruxism, stress induced asthma, hives, gastrointestinal
disorders, ulcers or gastritis, and irritable bowel syndrome, to name
We would underscore, however, that CES is not a cure for these illnesses
and does not represent itself as such. But by successfully addressing
the anxiety, depression, and insomnia underlying these disorders, it
can play a major role in the healing process.
Q. Is CES then only for the "sick" and the "stressed-out
A. You don't have to be "sick" or "stressed-out" to
use CES and realize its benefits. CES is a life-enhancing instrument
of potential value to everyone. Its uses are wide ranging. Some people
use it as an adjunct to meditation practice each morning. Others during
peak stressor moments that hit unexpectedly in the course of a day.
Who hasn't experienced those times when we are about to "lose
it?" Putting the unit on in these situations even just briefly--perhaps
for as little as ten minutes-- can help curb that anxiety and serve
as a reminder that one needs to be with ones self in a different way.
CES also represents a significant affirmation that you have the power
within to change your mental state and that you are willing to take
active steps to create the time and the space to do so.
Many use CES as an assist to their creative work or in high stress
situations. CES quiets the mind, making it especially helpful in preparing
for examinations or as an accelerated learning tool, such as when memorizing
blocks of material. For the athlete readying for competition, it helps
create the state of relaxed awareness helping them enter the zone of
maximum performance. Each person finds for themselves how to best incorporate
CES into their daily routine
Q. Can CES be used as a sleep aid?
A. The 100 Hz CES unit can be used at bedtime. But the .5 Hz CES needs
to be employed differently.
Because of the increased alertness resulting almost immediately from
its use, some patients may find it difficult to fall asleep immediately
after a treatment. Accordingly it is recommended that the .5 Hz CES
application be done at least three hours before going to bed. But by
no means does that mean that it is contraindicated for insomnia.
One thing CES users often report is an increase in vivid dreaming.
This results from compensation for lost REM sleep. As your sleep pattern
begins to normalize--within the next two or three nights--it should
become less frequent.
Q. Does CES work for everyone?
A. No. But it is known to be significantly effective for about 95%
of the people who use it.
Q. What can I expect ?
A. Most people will experience a relaxation response almost immediately
after treatment begins with a CES unit. Immediately after a CES treatment,
patients usually report feeling relaxed and sometimes inebriated for
the first few minutes. This is a pleasant and very comfortable sensation.
After several minutes to hours, the light-headed feelings usually disappear,
the relaxed state remains and a profound sense of alertness is achieved.
This relaxed/alert state will usually remain for an average of 12
to 72 hours after the first few treatments. With regular use it is
possible for the patient to habituate to this preferred state of consciousness.
Some patients describe the CES experience as analogous to having a
type A mind in a type B body.
During the treatment some people will notice a subjective change in
their body weight. You might feel heavier at first and then lighter,
or you may simply feel lighter initially. You could feel slightly worse
during the heavy cycle, and this feeling could last for days unless
extra treatment time is given. Therefore it is important to continue
the treatment for a few extra minutes if you should feel heavier at
the end of the allotted time, even if it has already been twenty minutes
or more. Continue for at least two minutes after you feel lighter.
Although this is quite common, not everyone will be aware of these
weight perception changes.
Q. What long range changes should I expect?
A. Sleep patterns should begin to normalize within the first day or
two, with less and shorter periods of awakening during the night, faster
onset of sleep after going to bed, and a greater feeling of being rested
upon awakening the following morning. Depression and mood swings become
less, as does irrational anger, irritability, and poor impulse control.
By the second week, cognitive processing is visibly enhanced. Mental
confusion due to stress begins to subside as the ability to focus and
concentrate on work becomes easier and more efficient. The ability
to recall information and accelerate learning also begins to return
to normal pre-stress levels as concentration and memory improve.
Q. What is the suggested length and frequency of treatment?
A. For the 100Hz unit the recommended usage is 30-45 minutes once
or twice daily for the first month after which the frequency may be
reduced to two or three times weekly once symptoms are reduced or eliminated
entirely. The 0.5 Hz unit recommended usage is three times a week for
twenty to forty minutes, although there are some who will benefit from
a more frequent daily treatment. There are also some who will achieve
the full benefits within ten minutes. Some dentists use it instead
of nitrous oxide during dental procedures that last for hours .You
yourself determine how to best incorporate CES into your daily routine.
It can be used on waking in the morning and/or on going to bed at night
and/or in response to stress situations. Individuals undergoing psychiatric
treatment or rehabilitation for substance abuse often benefit from
more frequent and prolonged application.
Those suffering from severe anxiety and extremes of compulsive or
addictive behavior may find it necessary to use it more frequently,
perhaps several times daily. When symptoms of depression or anxiety
have lessened or disappeared, it is still important to have access
to the unit as a tool for relapse prevention on an as-needed basis.
It is helpful to work in close conjunction with your physician/healthcare
professional to determine the role CES plays in your overall treatment
Q. Can you overuse the unit? / Are there any adverse effects from
A. You can't really overuse it. There have been no reported adverse
effects from more frequent use. The objective of CES is to return neurotransmitter
activity to pre-stress homeostasis. Once attained, CES has no additional
effect. Serving as a training wheels of sorts, CES helps you reprogram
yourself. Rather than learning to rely on the unit, you learn instead
how to refine and expand the art of self-regulation. CES teaches you
to become more sensitively attuned to yourself and better understand
your body and its needs.
Along the way, you will intuitively come to know when CES is needed
and when it is to be put aside. You alone will become the determinant
of use, as regards both frequency and duration.
During its usage, you will experience periods of relative calm and
a sense of control. You may even succumb to a bit of self- congratulations.
Seemingly, your CES unit appears destined for the bottom of a drawer.
Life being what it is, however, just as you are ready to celebrate
for successfully negotiating your personal terrain with skill and dignity---
Voila! New challenges appear from nowhere,--a veritable curveball from
Hell. CES can help move you through those difficult transitions. Keep
it handy. Incorporate it into your daily regimen.
The continuing use of the unit allows for further refinement of stress
management skills at newer and higher levels of complexity.
Q. Is CES difficult to use? /How much technical skill does it take?
A. Most CES units are user friendly. After having put on either the
electrodes or the earclips and inserted the leadwire into the jack,
it's all very simple. CES units either feature an on-off knob that
also controls the amplitude (turning it to the right increases the
amount of current) as in the 100 Hz devices. They use a button that
turns the unit on and a side wheel that increases the amplitude (The
Alpha Stim in addition displays the amount of micro-current being used
from 1-6, each numeral representing one hundred microamperes). Start
with a low current and gradually increase it. If the current is too
high, the patient may experience a stinging at the electrodes, dizziness
or nausea. If any of these symptoms occur, simply reduce the current
and the symptoms will immediately subside. After a minute or two, try
increasing the current again, but always keep it at a comfortable level.
It's ok to feel the current providing it is not uncomfortable.
Q. How does CES work?
A. As is the case with numerous medications, including aspirin, the
exact physiological mechanism by which CES works is not fully understood
and is still the subject of research study. It is hypothesized that
CES acts by direct stimulation of the brain in the hypothalmic area
with specific electronic frequencies. Such stimulation causes the brain
to manufacture various neurohormones that effect ones moods and emotions
as well as ones cognitive capabilities back to a level of pre-stress
homeostasis. For a more detailed hypothesis see "The Biolectrical
Mechanism" under Research.
Q. How does electromedicine such as CES differ from Western drug medicine?
A. Western drug medicine relies primarily on chemistry to heal and
control pain. Microcurrent electrical therapy (MET) is based on the
concept that the biophysics underlying the chemistry also plays a significant
role in regulating bodily processes. Using waveforms at a level of
current similar to the body's own, MET bridges cellular communications
helping reestablish the normal electrical flow.
The concept of a bioelectrical control system is common to every form
of healing ever developed in recorded history, except for drug medicine.
The Chinese named bioelectricity chi; the Japanese called it ki, the
Indians referred to it as prana, and the Russians, bioplasma. There
are 75 trillion cells in the human body, each one having an electrical
potential across its cell membrane, just like a battery. Though acknowledging
this fact, Western medicine does not yet fully appreciate the natural
healing powers of the body or the bioelectrical systems that control
Q. How is the current transmitted?
A. The traditional 100Hz unit utilizes pre-gelled electrodes that
snap on or attach to the end of leadwire that plugs into jack of the
unit. The Brain Tuner (BT-5 and 6) employs a stethoscope shaped device
that sits beneath the ears.
The 0.5 Hz unit (Alpha Stim) uses "ear clips" with felt
electrodes that adhere to the clips. Saturate the felt electrodes with
saline solution and then apply them to the superior aspect of the earlobes
as close to the jaw as possible.
Q. Under what circumstances is CES best used?
A. CES units generally come with a built-in belt-clip allowing you
full freedom of movement. This allows you to use it just about anywhere
and under a variety of circumstances, except those noted under the
contraindications. You can do it at home while watching TV or at the
office while doing your paperwork. Though of course you might not care
to go out jogging with it on, but then again you might. But CES is
more than an aside. It is also a reminder of the need to create inner
quiet and reroute your mental traffic. You don't want to contribute
to it further by treating CES as yet one more thing to do, squeezed
in between other frenetic events in your life. Though you need not
interrupt your usual activity for CES, its results are generally enhanced
by setting aside a special time for its use alone.
Q. How safe is CES?
A. CES has an unblemished safety record. For a more detailed analysis
of that record see "safety" under the research section.
Cranial electrotherapy stimulators are generally limited to less than
one milliampere (mA) of current. The Alpha-Stim 100 is an example of
a CES device that employs very low intensity electrical current pulses
(up to 600 microamperes). To put this into perspective, it takes one-half
of an ampere to light an ordinary 60 watt light bulb. To truly compare
the work done per second by these two different currents, we must multiply
the currents by the respective voltages that drive them. The product
current x voltage is a measure of the rate of generation of energy,
and is referred to as the power output. By definition, when a device
outputs 1 ampere of current with a 1 volt driving force, the power
output of the device is 1 watt. Therefore for the Alpha-Stim 100, the
maximum output is (600/1,000,000)amperes x 9 volts = 0.0054 watts,
or about 11,000 times less power than the light bulb. Many people do
not even feel this amount of current.
This is current amplitude similar to that in the human body. The sole
source of the current is a nine volt battery. Because the current is
alternating, it sends bipolar current between the electrodes instead
of unidirectionally, as would be the case with direct current. Hence
there is a net cellular polarization of zero to the user. This is a
safety factor of major importance.
The Alpha-Stim in particular uses a very broad band of frequencies
collectively known as harmonic resonance. This insures that the right
frequency will be delivered to reestablish homeostasis within the bioelectrical
system. The other frequencies pass harmlessly.
Q. Is CES discomforting?
A. CES is not to be confused with either ECT (electroconvulsive therapy)
which uses a much greater amount of electricity to induce traumatic
shock, or aversion therapy both of which are based on discomfort. With
CES you should experience no discomfort whatsoever. The most that will
ever be felt is a mild tingling sensation. If at any time the sensation
proves too strong, the amplitude should immediately be reduced by a
simple turnoff the knob or twist of the dial.
Research shows CES to operate effectively at both lower and higher
levels of stimulation as well as below the sensate threshold. accordingly,
the patients may turn the amplitude to the point of sensation; then
turn it down slightly below that point leaving it there during the
session. You may also increase or decrease the amplitude at will without
impairing the efficacy of the treatment. Your own comfort always dictates
the setting of the treatment.
Q. What is the relationship between CES and nutrition?
A. There is a synergistic relationship between nutrients and CES.
Think of the brain as a car battery, some cells of which may not be
fully functioning. To achieve that end one needs both water and the
trickle charge--This is analogous to the brain, amino acids and the
CES. The brain uses amino acids as the raw materials, the building
blocks or precursors with which to build its neurotransmitters. It
is necessary for these amino acids to be present in the bloodstream
in adequate amounts for the maximum impact/benefit of CES to be realized.
These precursors, if present will be taken up and synthesized into
neurohormones much more effectively when CES is added. These neurotransmitter
precursor amino acids can be taken orally as food supplements.
To experience an even more dramatic impact of CES, it should be done
in conjunction with amino acid supplements, especially in those areas
in which one is deficient. Ideally, you might first test to determine
the nature of the neurotransmitter deficiency and then develop a regimen
supplementing your diet with specific amino acids known to be precursors
Q. Are there any contraindications?
A. There are no known contraindications for use of CES. However, there
are circumstances in which its safety has not been tested. Accordingly,
CES should not be used without on-going clinical supervision by severe
depressives and those known to be epileptic, pregnant, or those using
implanted electronic devices such as cardiac pacemakers or insulin
There have, however, been instances where under such supervision CES
has been employed successfully and where CES has been shown to reduce
both the frequency and severity of seizures.
Because of the feeling of induced relaxation that results while using
CES, though, this relaxation response does not in any way impair reaction
time, it is recommended that CES not be used while operating dangerous
or complex equipment or while driving.
CES treatment may result indirectly in increased blood flow to the
brain. Hence its possible contraindication in recent hemorrhagic stroke
patients. This same effect can cause brief increased blood flow beneath
the electrodes behind the ears. This redness should not be cause for
concern. This is an extremely rare occurrence. It is not a burn response
and will go away shortly after the CES treatment is finished if it
occurs at all.
Perhaps three persons out of one hundred report a slight headache
when using CES. This is usually alleviated by simply turning the current
down. If the headache should recur during ordinary use, cease using
the unit and consult with your health care professional.
As with the use of any medical device, the physician/licensed practitioner
should be informed of any medication or neurotransmitter blockers the
patient is taking as well as the employment of cardiac pacemakers or
other electronic devices as mentioned above.
Q. What research is there as to the safety and effectiveness of CES?
A. There are approximately 1,000 articles on CES therapy many of which
are listed in four reviews put out by the Foreign Service Bulletin
of the United States Library of Congress. This is in addition to the
wealth of physiological and bio-engineering data on electrosleep and
electroanesthesia in animals. As of this writing there are more than
100 research studies on CES in humans and 18 experimental animal studies.
The efficacy of CES has been clinically confirmed through the use of
28 different psychometric tests. The significance of CES research for
treating anxiety has also been reconfirmed through meta-analyses conducted
at the University of Tulsa and at the Department of Health Policy and
Management , Harvard University School of Public Health. The full body
of research can be accessed at this website.
Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation as a Treatment for Anxiety in Chemically
Dependent Persons, Richard Schmitt, PhD, Thomas Capo, BS, Elvin Boyd,
MD, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, Vol. 10, No. 2,
Cranial Electrical Stimulation - CES Reduces Anxiety and Depression,
Focus on Alcohol and Drug Issues, Vol. 6, No.1, 1983.
Low Intensity Transcranial Electrostimulation Improves Human Learning
of a Psychomotor Task, Richard E. Madden, Ph.D., M.S.W.; & Daniel
L. Kirsch, Ph.D., American Journal of Electromedicine, 1987.
The Use of Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation in Post-Traumatic Amnesia:
A Report of Two Cases, Allen Childs, M.D., M. Lynn Crismon, Pharm.D.,
Brain Injury, Vol. 2, No. 3, 243-247, 1988.
Confirming Evidence of an Effective Treatment for Brain Dysfunction
in Alcoholic Patients, Ray B. Smith, Ph.D., M.P.A, Journal of Nervous & Mental
Disease, Vol. 170, No. 5, 275-277, 1982.
Depression: A Diagnostic, Neurochemical Profile & Therapy with
Cranial Electrical Stimulation (CES), C. Norman Shealy, Roger Cady,
Robert Wilkie, Richard Cox, Saul Liss, William Clossen, The Journal
of Neurological & Orthopaedic Medicine & Surgery, Vo. 10, No.
4, 319-321, 1989.
Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation Treatment of Cognitive Brain Dysfunction
in Chemical Dependence, Richard Schmitt, Ph.D., Thomas Capo, Hal Frazier,
M.D., Darrell Boren, J Clin Psychiatry, Vol 45: 60-63, 1984.
New Treatments Offer Hope for Agitated Brain Syndrome, Allen Childs,
M.D., The Psychiatric Times, Medicine & Behavior, September 1988.
Electrosleep in the Management of Alcoholism, Ray B. Smith, Lois O'Neill,
Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 10, No. 6, 675-679, 1975.
Effects of Transcerebral Electrotherapy (Electrosleep) on State Anxiety
According to Suggestibility Levels, Joseph J. Ryan, Gary T. Souheaver,
Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 11, No. 2, 233-237, 1976.
Electrosleep (Electrical Transcranial Stimulation) in the Treatment
of Anxiety, Depression and Sleep Disturbance in Chronic Alcoholics,
Richard E. McKenzie, Raymond M. Costello, J. Altered States of Consciousness,
Vol. 2 (2), 185-195, 1975-76.
Changes in Urinary Free Catecholamines and 17-Ketosteroids with Cerebral
Electrotherapy (Electrosleep), David F. Briones, M.D., Saul H. Rosenthal,
M.D., University of Texas Medical School at San Antonia, Texas, 57-58,
Intracerebral Current Levels in Man During Electrosleep Therapy, A.
M. Dymond, R. W. Coger, E.A. Serafetinides, Biological Psychiatry,
Vol. 10, No. 1, 101-104, 1975.
Treatment of Methadone Withdrawal with Cerebral Electrotherapy (Electrosleep),
Evaristo Gomez, Adib R. Mikhail, Brit J. Psychiat., Vol. 134, 111-113,
Electrosleep, A Preliminary Communication, Saul H. Rosenthal, M.D.,
Norman L. Wulfsohn, M.D., The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease,
Vol. 151, No. 2, 146-151, 1970.
Electrosleep: Personal Subjective Experiences, Saul H. Rosenthal,
Lynn F. Calvert, Biological Psychiatry, Vol. 4, No. 2, 187-190, 1972.
The Effects of Cerebral Electrotherapy on Short-Term Memory Impairment
in Alcoholic Patients, Ray B. Smith, Eleanor Day, The International
Journal of the Addictions, Vol 12 (4). 575-582, 1977.
The Effects of Electrosleep on Insomnia Revisited, Rosalind Dymond
Cartwright, Ph.D., Marc F. Weiss, The Journal of Nervous and Mental
Disease, Vol. 161, No. 2, 134-137, 1975.
The Treatment of Insomnia Through the Use of Electrosleep: An EEG
Study, Marc F. Weiss, The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol.
157, No. 2, 108-120, 1973.
Studies of Electrosleep with Active and Simulated Treatment, Saul
H. Rosenthal, M.D., Norman L. Wulfsohn, M.D., Current Therapeutic Research,
Vol. 12, No. 3, 126-130, 1970.