Studies done by seven time Nobel Prize nominee, Dr. Johana Budwig have shown unparalleled results in the use of EFAs in the treatment of terminal cancer patients. In her book, Flax Oil as a True Aid Against, Arthritis Heart Infraction, Cancer, and Other Diseases, Dr. Budwig indicates that a balanced diet of essential fatty acids would keep our cells biologically electron rich. Saturated fats and trans-fats , which make up the vast majority of the food oils we now use alter the electronic charge of the unsaturated oils in cell membranes, decreasing the cells ability to store and receive electrons from the sun. Budwig goes on to quote quantum physicist Dessauer: “If it were possible to increase the concentration of solar electrons tenfold in this biological electron rich molecule, man would live to be 10,000 years old.”

Marriage of the Sun and Moon

Dr. Budwig is one of the most lucid and penetrating sages of our time. She is a Master of Science and reveals to us the mysterious marriage of the sun and moon in terms of modern science: the transcendent sun-god, Photon, and the moon-goddess, Electron :

Light is the fastest traveler from star to star. There is nothing that travels faster than light. Light speeds along with time. It is eternal. Physicists emphasize that the photon, the quantum, the smallest component of the sun’s ray’s is eternal. The photon is always in motion. Nothing can ever halt its motion. The photon is full of color, and can change its color, its frequency, when present in large numbers. The photon — acknowledged to be the purest form of energy, the purest wave, always in motion — can unite with a second photon when it is in resonance with the other, to form a “short-lived particle.” This particle, known as a p0 particle, can break up into two photon s again, without mass, as a pure wave in motion. This is the basis for the wonderful back and forth movement between light and matter. This photon can never be pinned down to one location. Herein lies the foundation for the Theory of Relativity.

This very active, very dynamic very energetic photon can be captured by electron s that are in resonance with the photon. What does that mean? Electrons are already a component of matter. They are also continuously in motion. They constantly oscillate on their own wavelength. They have their own frequency, just like a radio receiver that is set to a specific wavelength.

The electron loves photons. It attracts photons by its magnetic field. When an electrical charge moves, it always produces a magnetic field. The moving photon also has a magnetic field. Both fields, the magnetic field of the electrons and the magnetic field of the photons attract each other when the wavelengths are in tune. The wave length of the photon — which the photon can change — must fit into the wavelength of the orbiting electron so that the orbit maintains a complete wavelength. This feature is extremely interesting in terms of its physical manifesta­tion, its biological and even its philosophical consequences. All matter has its own inherent vibration. Of course, this also applies to living substances. The energy which is being absorbed must correspond to the inherent wavelength.

The sun’s rays are very much in harmony with humans. It is no coincidence that we love the sun. The resonance in our biological tissue is so strongly tuned to the absorption of solar energy that physicists who occupy themselves with this scientific phenomena, the quantum biologists, say that there is nothing on earth that has a higher concentration of solar energy photon s than humans. This enrichment with solar energy depends strongly on the “like energy” aspects, a wavelength that is compatible with humans, and this is supported when we eat foods that have electron s with electromagnetic fields that attract the electromag­netic waves of solar rays — the photon. An abundance of these electrons, which are tuned to the solar energy frequency, exist, for example, in many seed-oils. Scientifically these oils have even been designated as electron-rich, “essential,” highly unsaturated fats. But when we began processing fats to prevent them from spoiling, nobody thought about the significance that this would have for the survival and the further development of the human species. We destroyed their extremely important wealth of electrons, which are very mobile and react so wonderfully to sunlight.

When the sunshine beams down on the leafy canopy of a tree and is absorbed through photosynthesis, a flow of electrons is produced. A magnetic field is also produced between these trees as they conduct electrons and water. If we, who have an abun­dance of electrons and possess living tissue that is capable of conducting a current, move through this electromagnetic field of the woods, our tissues also become charged with solar-compatible electrons. As our blood flows through the body, it induces an electrical charge on the lipids, the unsaturated fats, on the membranes of the red corpuscles as it passes through the magnetic fields. In this way, many inductions and reverse inductions occur. With every heartbeat, a dose of lymph containing the body’s own electron-rich, highly unsaturated fats is injected into the bloodstream, and thus into the heart, from the lymphatic system. This stimulates and strengthens the electromotive power of the heart. The emitting of electromagnetic waves is associated with the very flow of the bloodstream, in accord with the fundamental, natural law governing electromagnetic waves.

This transmitter in humans is always in operation. The cylindrical structure of our nerves with the different layers and ganglions, with the difference in electrical potential between the neurons and dendrites, immediately supplies the picture of how strongly an electric current in a magnetic field leads to the emit­ting of electromagnetic waves. When I think a positive thought about another person, this involves the emitting of electromagnetic waves. The reception also depends on the wavelength to which the receiver is tuned. There are amplifiers, as well as transmitters that interfere. This encompasses a whole host of situations that are known under different names such as telepathy, hypnosis, mental telepathy, and many others. Among Nordic peoples, it is known that the isolated native inhabitants use a tree to amplify thought transmission, for example, to inform the husband who had gone to town, that he should bring back some salt. Bismark described how, during periods of trouble or pressure, he found relaxation by putting his arms around a tree and leaning his forehead against the trunk. In both cases, it involves electromagnetic waves that behave in accord with Maxwellian mathematical equations. —Dr. Johanna Budwig , The “Fat Syndrome” and the Photon s of Solar

The Life Force and Linoleic Acid

The special relationship between photons, electrons and EFAs described by Dr. Budwig is due to the amazing molecular structures of LA (cis- linoleic acid), LNA (cis- linolenic acid), and other even more highly unsaturated oils manufactured from them within the human body. Plants have enzymes capable of inserting cis double bonds starting at the third carbon atom on a fatty acid carbon chain. Human enzymes can make double bonds starting at the ninth carbon atom only. If the fatty acid has more than one double bonded carbon pair it is polyunsaturated. LA has two unsaturated pairs in its 18-carbon chain. LNA has three unsaturated pairs in its 18-carbon chain. Naturally unsaturated fatty acids made by plants have their double bonds three carbon atoms apart.

These unsaturated bonds cause the normally straight line shape of the carbon chain to bend at the double bonded pair because nature always removes the hydrogen atoms from the same side of the fatty acid molecule. This greatly changes the fatty acid’s physical and chemical characteristics. Biochemists call this cis- configuration. The bent structure keeps the EFAs from dissolving into each other. They are slippery, not sticky like the SFAs (saturated fatty acids, e.g., butter, lard, coconut oil), and they are liquid at body temperature. EFAs possess a slightly negative charge and have a tendency to form very thin surface layers. This property is called surface activity, and it provides the power to carry substances like toxins to the surface of the skin, intestinal tract, kidneys and lungs where they can be removed. EFA surface activity also helps disperse materials which react with or dissolve into the EFAs. Essential cis- unsaturated fatty acids do not clog arteries like SFAs.

The cis- configuration allows de-localized electron clouds (pi-electrons) to form in the bend produced on the chain. The resulting electrostatic force enables the EFAs to capture oxygen molecules and hold proteins within cell membranes. And because of the pi-electron clouds in the cis- bonds, EFAs are able to form phase boundary electrical potentials between the water inside and outside of cells, and the oils within the cell membranes. Like static electricity in a capacitor these charges can produce measurable bioelectric currents essential to nerve, muscle, heart and membrane functions. EFAs are extremely important to the body’s overall energy exchange potential — the flow of lifeforce.

LA , LNA and the highly unsaturated fatty acids the human body makes from them are necessary in the most active energy and electron exchanging and oxygen requiring tissues; especially the brain, retina, inner ear, adrenal and testicular tissues. They carry the high energy required by the most active tissues, and ensure very high oxygen availability to them. Lifeforce travels through the body via the essential fatty acids and their derivatives.

Unlike sticky saturated fats (and trans- fats which result from subjecting poly-unsaturated fats to high heat during refining processes), the molecular structure of EFAs is curved and slippery. This cis- configuration allows them to produce life energy from food and carry that energy throughout the body. LA , LNA and the highly unsaturated fats the body makes from them carry the high energy required by the most active tissues. Lifeforce travels through the body via these essential fatty acids and their derivatives.

Over half the oil found in dark green plant leaves is linolenic acid (green leaves contain one percent or less oil). It is even more concentrated in the membranes of the chloroplasts where photosynthesis takes place. The pi-electron s transform the solar energy into chemical energy and LNA transports that energy wherever it is needed.

The forward looking human of the New Golden Age will be a consumer of highly unsaturated oils cold pressed from fresh seeds. Marijuana-hemp seeds provide the ratio of LA to LNA that is the closest to the ideal requirement for the human body, about three times more LA than LNA . Hempseed oils can reduce fat-clogging in arteries of the sluggish anti-humans and at the same time increase electron cloud densities in these unfortunate and sometimes mean spirited wretches. An increase in pi-electron cloud density means an increase in vital energy that is necessary for superior mental function and essential for manifestation of a bright mind looking forward to a bright new future.

The Alchemy of DNA

Throughout the ages the sages and prophets have described God and Mind as a cloud. The trinity of body, spirit and soul is a religious union in God. The trinity of matter, energy and mind is a philosophical union in Man. Both have been studied by the alchemists. This trinity of electron, photon and pi-cloud is a material union manifest as lifeforce that is a manifestation of Mind and God. Electrons can absorb and release energy as photons when energy flux passes through them. In the pi-electron cloud flux photons are emitted and re-absorbed constantly as bioelectric and biomagnetic currents course through the nervous and circulatory system. The chaotic flow of photon emergence and absorption is tantamount to the light of mind unfocused. When the light of mind becomes meaningful then revelation of ideas proceeds to focus the chaotic flow of photons into functional mathematical relationships. The sages frequently used the analogy of the fire or light of God pulsing through the cloud of knowing in the world-soul as giving rise to All. This trinity of being in existence was a source of profound inspiration to the Pagan prophets and philosophers.

To the Neoplatonist Plotinus, the world-soul is the energy of the intellect. He compares the One, the primordial creative principle, with light, the intellect with the sun, and the world-soul with the moon. The One, designated as Uranos, is transcendent; the Son (Kronos) has dominion over the visible world; and the world-soul is subordinate to him. The One, or ousia of existence in totality, is described by Plotinus as hypostatic, and so are the three forms of emanations: thus we have one being in three hypostases. According to Plotinus, the world-soul has a tendency towards separation and divisibility, the sine qua non of all change, creation, and reproduction. It is an “unending All of life” and wholly energy; a living organism of ideas which only become effective and real in it. The intellect is its progenitor and father, and what the intellect conceives the world-soul brings to birth in reality. “What lies enclosed in the intellect comes to birth in the world-soul as Logos, fills it with meaning and makes it drunken as if with nectar.” Nectar, like soma, is the drink of fertility and immortality. —C.G. Jung, Symbols of Transformation[3]

Certainly DNA is the blueprint of living molecular organization. It is protected inside a nuclear membrane inside every cell which, in turn, is protected by its own cell wall, and all healthy membranes are rich in essential lipids containing pi-electron clouds. Whether DNA sends an RNA messenger to initiate functioning depends upon the quality of vitality in all feedback systems in the “youniverse” of the human being in the universe of the human body. And the quality of energy feeding back to the DNA is dependent upon the density and vibratory energy in the chain of pi-electron clouds throughout the system. So in this system DNA is like the essential body, from which the whole organism can be built, and the life force coursing through the pi-clouds is the energy-spirit that operates it.

Since the most highly unsaturated fatty acids are located in the brain and nervous system, there we find the highest density of pi-electron cloud flux, and in the cloud flux, the brain generates mind. Mysteriously, mind, which cannot be measured directly by any scientific devices to date, acts upon the nervous system moving the living body to work against entropy toward its own goals. Those goals are manifest as ideas and images in the mind. And what are ideas and images in the mind but meaningful light revealing possibilities erupting from the super-unknown. The revelation of ideas erupting from the super-unknown into the mind of one can be conveyed to other minds. Each mind awakened to the revelation of ideas can further convey revelation and ideas to still others. And each mind acting and reacting to revelation and ideas is itself part of a neural net of minds collectively and individually manifesting the super-conscious Mind of God. In the New Golden Age the “youniverse” of mind in the body of Man will unite with the “youniversal” Mind of God in the body of the universe.

The development of scientific and technical knowledge has been essential to the greater understanding of the phenomenal universe. This advancement of knowledge about the operations of the universe has lead to reformations of previous religious ideas as humanity evolves toward the golden age when union with the godhead becomes an every day event in the lives of forward looking humanity. Revelation of ideas within the “cloud of knowing” in a mind rich in pi-electron cloud flux connects that individual with divine gnosis in the transcendent “youniversal” Mind.

If the revelation of ideas is not happening from within because the “cloud of knowing” is vapid from an inadequate flux of pi-electron cloud energy, then the revelation of ideas has to be conveyed by those in the cloud of knowing. The dim ones must accept revelation on faith or some justification employing reason or logic. Still, it is easier for the dim ones to repeat in comfort the rhetoric of the past as orthodox tradition — until their own mind clouds are invigorated by nutritional therapy with EFAs obtained from seed oils, especially marijuana-hemp seed oils.

Inertia, one of the manifestations of universal entropy, is difficult to overcome. When the mind has been dimmed because cis-polyunsaturate d fatty acids are lacking in the brain, new ideas can be seen as offensive because the change involved may require more energy than is available to neutralize the mental inertia. For instance, the United States government has been allowing the import of hemp seeds as long as they were steam sterilized at 212° F to prevent the possibility of sprouting. That temperature does not ruin the EFAs though it does somewhat uncoil the highly nutritious edistin protein in the seeds. Now that hempseed consumption has increased dramatically in the U.S., the federal government has decreed that the seeds must be dry heated to over 300° F. causing the EFAs to denature and become toxic.

The anti-humans in charge cannot accept the truth that marijuana seeds are the most nutritious single food source on earth for humans. They cannot accept the validity of spiritual revelations initiated in humans by the religious use of marijuana for fear it might conflict with their position in the orthodox social hierarchy. They uphold and enforce ignorant mistakes made in the past that keep them focused on the past, and they are unwilling to make the changes in habits that are killing one out of every three of them as well as the rest of Americans with heart disease and cancers directly or indirectly attributable to consumption of fats altered by high heat.[4] Since they see no reason to stop their own slow deaths on the trail of anti-human degenerative pathology, they feel no remorse forcing others off the highway of individual health and revelation leading into the new Golden Age.

This information about vitality and hempseed nutrition has been circulated within the counterculture for about five years now. Its general acceptance there has caused a dramatic increase in demand for hempseed foods for human dietary consumption. A bright mind is contagious, and healthy living is universally admirable. Those already tasting the benefits of Golden Age vitality are not willing to dim out with the anti-humans. Fortunately as current events indicate most stuck on the loway of anti-human devolution and degenerative disease want to change directions for the highway of genuine vitality and wholeness.



[1] A lecture held on April 6, 1972, at the 8th “Vie et Action” Congress, in Tours, France translated from German as published in Flax Oil as a True Aid Against Arthritis, Heart Infarction, Cancer and Other Diseases, Dr. Johanna Budwig, Apple Publishing Company, Vancouver, British Colombia Canada, 1992.

[2] Emphasis added.

[3] Carl G. Jung quoting and paraphrasing from Plotinus’ Enneads, II, III, and IV in Symbols of Transformation, p. 138.

[4] For more details on this subject see Fats and Oils, The Complete Guide to Fats and Oils in Health and Nutrition, by Udo Erasmus, Alive Books, Burnaby, BC, Canada.

The cell is a complicated entity in which thousands of activities take place. Peter said most of them were not relevant to our discussion. What was relevant was the electrical potential of the cell. He explained that the body of a cell is enclosed by a membrane, and in a nerve cell the electrical potential is minus ninety millivolts, relative to the outside of the cell. Peter said the reason there is this negative potential is because of a disproportionate amount of substances inside the cell relative to outside the cell—particularly sodium and potassium. Peter spoke of the membrane with obvious admiration: “This very thin membrane can sustain an electrical tension better than most insulators. The insulation strength is high. It has to be strong; it’s so very thin.” Then, in considerable detail, he explained the electrochemical mechanisms involved in the discharge of electrical activity. I won’t go into that here.

Peter said that there are about ten billion cells in the brain—each with an electrical potential. (The figure of ten billion is imprecise. The latest census has it considerably higher.) He said that even a slight imbalance in individual cells, because of the proliferative possibilities, could cause a problem in a large area of the brain. He told me that cells vary in length in the human. In nerve cells the speed of impulse transmission varies from one hundred meters a second to three meters a second. All the cells in the human body, although they do not have the same amount of electrical potential, work on the same principle. Peter said this was true in other animals and, for that matter, all living things. Apparently when the Lord came up with a good thing like the cell he used it over and over again.

What You Need To Know - To Get Well - Stay Well!
by Arthur Widgery, President, DNR, Inc.

To stay as well as possible should be everyone's goal! The word "possible" means we habitually do nothing to harm the body and everything we know of to help it. We all need to know more about what it takes to help our bodies help us get well and stay well. First, however, we need to know more about the actual structure of our bodies and what that structure relies on to stay healthy and alive.

Our bodies are made up of microscopic cells. These cells make up our tissue, bones, organs and systems. Every cell in the body is composed of combinations of atoms, called molecules. These molecules are electrical in nature, supplying the electrical and energy needs of the cell.

Without sufficient and balanced energy, the atom molecules cannot support the cell's ability to maintain health or heal. Balanced and sufficient levels of energy within the molecular structure of cells must be present before any physical, mental or emotional problem can be addressed. Insufficient and blocked energy, along with imbalances, occur at different locations and times in the body.

Only the body can heal itself but it must first be in balance. Our bodies depend on electricity to ignite the movement and balance of all chemical responses. If the balance and strength of the body's electrical properties are lacking, other systems and functions will be compromised and will malfunction. All of the body's chemical and energy functions depend on electricity. Without the ability to produce electricity, the body will not function and will die. Note: One of the most important characteristics regarding DNR light-activated products is the unique ability to stimulate energy and electrical movement throughout the body.

Not enough can be said about the body's dependency on electrical and energetic support. The heart depends on electrical support in order to move blood, plasma and nutrients to every cell in the body. The body's immune system depends on the nervous system to send electrically stimulated messages alerting specific cells about the attacks of certain invaders. Without the electrical potentials found in the nervous system, none of the body’s cells and systems could be tied together to form one central communication system.

The relationship between the body's energy level and its electrical activity is crucial to maintaining health and life. If there is blockage or insufficiency of energy, the bodily functions suffer. The body normally transposes certain chemical substances into electricity or electrical potentials that can be used to move electrical and chemical signals throughout the body. When the body metabolizes foods, it is looking for nutrients containing energy. While the adequacy of electricity and energy largely depend upon this metabolism, we must remember the intake of air and water is also necessary.

Sadly, our food intake has become no more than a means of satisfying hunger. No food resource today can be considered safe or nutritionally adequate. The air we breathe and the earth's water resources have become polluted with every known synthetic chemical imaginable. It's time to look beyond conventional dietary supplementation for health assistance. No conventional dietary supplement or drug can deal with the body's electrical deficiencies. Today, dietary supplements and foods are basically void of nature’s energy characteristics and are responsible, in large measure, for the loss of vigor, vitality and nutritional balance.

Drugs are not the answer to health. Physicians prescribe drugs mostly to deal with symptoms, not causes of disease or illness. They are relying on the body to eventually cure or heal itself. The irony is, the body was designed to heal itself only when in a state of balance. Drugs, with their synthetic makeup, are known traditionally to create imbalances. Medical doctors do not have a prescription drug that provides electrical support or keeps the body in balance or healthy.

Medical Science fails us by attempting to solve a health problem by trying to suppress a symptom rather than overcome the root cause of the symptom. There are millions of us dealing with health crises that are related to symptoms suppressed many years earlier. Eventually, in order to keep living, we will have to deal with the causes of illness and disease.

So many of us judge our current health conditions on the way we feel right now! My experience tells me most of us don't care about our health until we are told we are very sick or have lost some bodily function. We eat junk and expect our bodies to like it. We wouldn't think of putting kerosene in our automobile's gas tank, yet we continually subject our bodies to junk foods and expect them to perform miracles.

Doesn’t it stand to reason that in order to correct any problem, we should go to its cause? No one would attempt to get rid of termites in their home by treating the decayed and eaten out walls and supports. They would have to treat below the surface of the home where termites begin their assault. Almost always, the cause can be found and treated at the very foundational structure of the body as well. It’s as simple as, “If there is an imbalance or energetic problem at the molecular level, we must deal with and correct that before we can expect total healing.”

Our bodies are programmed to eventually die! None of us are promised a sudden death without lingering pain or agony, and most of us die prematurely and needlessly. We are personally responsible for learning what it takes to stay healthy, and then doing it. It's up to each one of us to do whatever is necessary to keep the body in balance and healthy. Exercise and eating as right as possible are fine, but today they are not enough. Clean living and a positive outlook make us feel better about ourselves, but they are not enough either. Then what is enough?

I believe everyone should plan for better health and healing by raising the electrical potential of the body’s molecular and cellular structure. This is a major requirement for establishing molecular balance and restoring the vitality and energy required by cellular complexes. Every light-energized product DNR makes and sells deals with this process

Acupoints and Magnetic Therapy
By Camilo Sanchez, OMD, LAc, DH

The electromagnetic spectrum is a very significant component of the human energy system. It acts as the interface between the physical dimension and more subtle energy fields operating in the body.

Electromagnetic signals regulate most biologic functions. Every one of the body's trillions of cells has an energy state or electrical charge (polarity) at the surface membrane. Healthy cells function by depolarizing -- that is, raising their electrical potential - and repolarizing. It's known that cancerous cells are in a state of constant depolarization and are unable to switch back to their resting electrical charge. The body's bones and connective tissue are piezoelectric and have the ability to transform mechanical motion into electrical energy.

Sixty percent of the body's weight is water, which carries ions (electrically charged mineral salts) that, when in motion, generate tiny electromagnetic fields. The human nervous system is the great regulator of biological systems and operates via electrical impulses that fire at the axon and bridge across the synaptic gap, which are then transformed to chemical signals. It has been suggested that the mechanism of action of magnet therapy occurs through the iron-containing hemoglobin molecule and its ferromagnetic property. In this author's opinion, ions, hemoglobin, protein molecules, erythrocytes, and even tissues and cells, are the biological mediators of electromagnetic signals that link the chemical level of organization with more subtle and higher organizing forces (acoustics; quanta of light/photons; nadis; chakra systems). Bionergetic testing methods have shown that tissues and cells oscillate at characteristic frequencies and are in vibratory resonance to certain energies. This should not be foreign to practitioners of Chinese medicine, and should remind us of the spectral variety of yin/yang, the various forms in which qi can be manifested (da qi; xie qi; gu qi; wei qi), and the five phase energetics, with their spheres of correspondence.

An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a graphical recording of the changes occurring in the electrical potentials between different sites on the skin as a result of cardiac activity. The electrical activity of the heart is a sequence of depolarizations and repolarizations. Depolarization occurs when the cardiac cells, which are electrically polarized, lose their internal negativity. The spread of depolarization travels from cell to cell, producing a wave of depolarization across the entire heart. This wave represents a flow of electricity that can be detected by electrodes placed on the surface of the body. Once depolarization is complete, the cardiac cells are restored to their resting potential, a process called repolarization.

A crystal (the correct one in each specific instance) will balance the electrical potential of your cell membrane and the cell itself. Your cell will "think" it is normal and act so. Its normal action would be to destroy and eliminate the foreign bacterial cells causing the infection. In the second instance crystals balance the electrical potential of cells governing your emotional and mental processes, bringing these to balance.

It would be helpful to review the cellular nature of an injury to fully appreciate the importance of Cheng's research. Becker (1985) has shown that trauma will affect the electrical potential of cells in damaged tissues. Initially the injured site has a much higher resistance than that of the surrounding tissue. Basic physics dictates that electricity tends towards the path of least resistance. Therefore, endogenous bio-electricity avoids areas of high resistance and takes the easiest path, generally around the injury. The decreased electrical flow through the injured area decreases the cellular capacitance (Windsor, 1993). As a result, healing is actually impaired. This may be one of the reasons for inflammatory reactions. Pain, heat, swelling, and redness are the characteristics of inflamed tissues. Electricity flows more readily through these hot inflammatory fluids.

The correct microcurrent application to an injured site augments the endogenous current flow. This allows the traumatised area to regain its capacitance. The resistance of the injured tissue is then reduced, allowing bio-electricity to enter the area to re-establish homeostasis. Therefore microcurrent electrical therapy can be viewed as a catalyst helpful in initiating and perpetuating the numerous chemical and electrical reactions that occur in the healing process.

When a muscle experiences trauma it goes into spasm to protect itself. This decreases its blood supply reducing the amount of oxygen and nutrients to reach it. The decreased circulation causes an accumulation of metabolic waste products. This causes noxious input that results in pain.