Quick Definitions

Angiogenesis is the growth of new blood vessels. It takes place in some normal processes, such as pregnancy and wound healing, and also in solid tumors, both benign and malignant. Angiogenesis facilitates tumor growth by supplying oxygen, nutrients and access to the body's normal blood circulation, which assists metastasis (see below).

Antioxidants are natural biochemical substances that protect living cells against damage from free radicals. Free radicals are unstable molecules formed from normal metabolic processes. They contain an unpaired electron that can "steal" an electron from other molecules, altering their structure and thereby harming a cell's outer membrane, proteins, enzymes and DNA. Antioxidants work against the process of oxidation by reacting readily with oxygen-breakdown products and free radicals, neutralizing them before they can damage the body.

Apoptosis is a type of genetically programmed cell disintegration and death, triggered under certain conditions such as cell damage or the expression of cancer-causing genes ("oncogenes"--see below). Defects in apoptosis are believed to play a role in the initiation and proliferation of cancer.

BioResonance is a term used to describe a characteristic of subatomic particles, which resonate, or radiate, energy into their surroundings in specific wave patterns. By matching or manipulating these patterns, BioResonance is used to amplify, or strengthen, healthy body organs and systems, or to weaken various pathogens and toxins.

Cell Differentiation is a process by which unspecialized cells mature and become specialized to carry out specific tasks. When cells differentiate as they divide, they acquire the functions of mature cells of the type of tissue they originated from. A normal liver cell, for example, will not wander from the liver and will expire if damaged. If it is undifferentiated, however, it can become malignant and spread (metastasize) and proliferate uncontrollably.

Chelation Therapy refers to a method of binding up (chelating) toxins like heavy metals and removing them from the body. The most familiar type of chelation therapy involves repeated sessions of intravenous administration of chelating agents such as EDTA, often used to remove lead and cadmium, and DMPS and DMSA, which are used to eliminate mercury.

Free Radicals (see Antioxidants)

Lymphocytes are specialized forms of white blood cells, of which there are many kinds. B-cells are mainly involved in the production of antibodies, and do not play a major role in fighting cancer. T-cells include killer T-cells that bind to a specific invader and secrete enzymes to destroy it; helper T-cells that secrete proteins such as interferon that stimulate other lymphocytes; and suppressor T-cells that prevent excessive immune reactions by suppressing antibody activity. See also Natural Killer cells.

Macrophages are a form of white blood cell that can literally swallow invading organisms and infected or cancerous cells. They secrete enzymes to kill or damage the swallowed substance, then send bits of the foreign proteins to their surface, where they can be recognized by T-Helper cells to stimulate increased immune response.

Metastasis is the spread of bacteria or body cells from one part of the body to another. The term is usually used in reference to cancer cells establishing a secondary growth by spreading via the lymphatics or bloodstream from a primary site.

Natural Killer (NK) Cells are nonspecific, free-ranging lymphocytes that can recognize and destroy any aberrant or foreign cell on first contact. They are armed with approximately 100 biochemical poisons and are the body's most potent immune response for cancer prevention and control. They are capable of migrating to the site of a cancer and destroying the malignant cells before they proliferate uncontrollably. They are not able to destroy large tumors, but can protect against metastasis by destroying blood- and lymph-borne cancer cells that would
otherwise form the basis of a new growth.

NSAIDs or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, are conventional drugs given to reduce inflammation, pain and joint stiffness. Many over-the-counter pain relievers such as aspirin and ibuprofen are NSAIDS, but there are also prescription NSAIDS such as Naproxen. They typically consist of weak organic acids that suppress the production of prostaglandins (see below). NSAIDs can also interfere with chemical reactions that take place in membranes. There are many side effects associated with NSAIDs, the best known being internal bleeding.

Oncogenes/Proto-oncogenes Proto-oncogenes are genes that code for growth factors to cause cells to divide and grow rapidly, and so they are active in fetal development. If they become abnormally expressed later in life through gene mutation, they can be transformed into oncogenes. Oncogenes are believed to transform normal cells into cancer cells. Some viruses have incorporated human oncogenes into their own DNA, and these viruses can also cause abnormal oncogene expression. Approximately 100 oncogenes have been identified.

Prostaglandins are hormone-like fatty acid derivatives present in many body tissues. They affect inflammatory processes, smooth muscle function and constriction and dilation of blood vessels, particularly in the lungs and intestines.

Staging, in cancer terminology, is a relative index that describes the size, location and amount of containment or metastasis of a malignant growth. Stage 1, the earliest, most curable stage, shows only local tumor involvement. Stage 2 indicates some spreading of cancer to the surrounding tissues and perhaps to nearby lymph nodes. Stage 3 involves metastasis to distant lymph nodes. Stage 4, the most advanced and least easily cured, means the cancer has spread to distant organs.

Statin Inhibitors are a type of drug commonly used to lower blood serum cholesterol. The most common, such as Mevacor (lovastatin) and Zocor (simvastatin) inhibit a specific enzyme involved in an early step in the production of cholesterol. Studies have suggested that they decrease cancer cell proliferation as well.

Transfer Factors are tiny protein molecules, much smaller than antibodies, that serve as "messengers" for the cell-mediated response of the immune system, which involves white blood cells (leukocytes and lymphocytes). Researchers have suggested that transfer factors evolved as a way of compensating for the immune system's slow antibody (humoral) response to foreign substances.