Specific Medical PEMF Applications

ARTICLES INDICATING more specific APPLICATIONS
OF THE PEMF ELECTROTHERAPEUTIC GENERATORS

meDical studies    (N to Z)   

Neck Pain

D. Foley-Nolan, Low Energy High Frequency Therapy for Persistent Neck Pain. Double Blind Placebo Controlled Trial, Bioelectromagnetics Society, 12th Annual,June 10-14, 1990, San Antonia, TX, p. 73.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of low-energy pulsed electromagnetic fields administered via soft collars on patients suffering from persistent neck pain. Results indicated significantly beneficial effects following three weeks of treatment.

Nerve Damage

L.V. Zobina, Effectiveness of Magnetotherapy in Optic Nerve Atrophy. A Preliminary Study,

Vestn Oftalmol, 106(5),September-October 1990, p. 54-57.

This study examined the effects of a magnet therapy device used to administer approximately 10 mT for approximately 10 minutes in patients with optic nerve atrophy. Patients underwent 10-15 sessions per course. Results showed that vision acuity in patients with low acuity values (below 0.04 diopters) improved in 50 percent of cases. It was also found that the treatment improved ocular blood flow in cases of optic nerve atrophy. Optimal benefits were experienced after 10 therapy sessions.

Neurofibromatosis

Crawford AH (1986) Neurofibromatosis in children. Acta Orthop Scand Suppl 218:1-60.


Clinical diagnosis of neurofibromatosis in childhood usually is based on the presence of numerous cafe-au-lait spots. Early diagnosis allows for continuing follow-up and appropriate counselling. Symptomatic therapy can be provided if necessary. The disorder has a tendency via its mesodermal route to affect almost every system in the body; however, few laymen have even heard of the disorder and, except for the "Elephant Man" notoriety, are totally unaware of it, whereas muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis, and Down syndrome although occurring less frequently are well known to the general public. The management of neurofibromatosis in children covers an extremely wide spectrum: at times the management seems to be simple, involving little more than clinical evaluation and simple investigations. However, in view of the protean manifestations of the condition, a complete history including family history is obligatory, and investigation must include radiographic studies of the abdomen, chest, spine, and skull, the latter to include special views of the orbits and optic foramina.

My investigation of this disorder has been extremely frustrating because of the progressive character of the disease. Nothing seems to alter the natural course of the disease. I cannot say that my investigative efforts have revealed any breakthroughs in treatment. An aggressive surgical approach to the myriad of lesions associated with this disease, especially neuromata or segmental problems, is probably advisable.

The early treatment of tibial pseudarthrosis by polyprophylene orthotic and pulsating EMFs shows encouraging results over the short course, although I am not so sure as to whether or not the patients would do as well with the custom fit orthotic with or without the electronics. Early stabilization of spinal deformity has proven to be more than moderately successful and is strongly recommended after appropriate intraspinal evaluation. The management of tumors of the brain and spinal cord, as well as those associated with limb hypertrophy and congenital tibial pseudarthrosis, is undergoing innovations at this time which may result in a better cure rate. Procedures include the use of CT to evaluate tumors [Coleman et al. have attempted to differentiate neurofibroma from neurofibrosarcoma by contrast enhancement methods], the use of CO2 lasers to remove previously inoperable CNS tumors, microvascular bone transplantation and pulsating EMF to treat pseudarthrotic bones. PMID: 3083645, UI: 86182808

Neurological Disorders

neurological and locomotor disorders

G. Terlaki, Clinical Experiences Magnetotherapy, Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy,

2nd Symposium,16-17 May 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 175-179.

This article summarizes clinical results obtained the authors in using pulsed electromagnetic fields  in the treatment of neurological and locomotor disorders among a group of 148 patients in a hospital setting over a period of 3 years. The authors claim that 58-80 percent of such patients experienced benefits of some kind over the course of magnetotherapy.

nervous system diseases

A.A. Skorometz, Magnetic Impulse Therapy of Patients with Spondylogenic Diseases of the Nervous System,

Fizicheskaia Meditzina, 3(1-2),1993, p. 41-43.

This study examined the effects of magnetotherapy on patients suffering from nervous system diseases. Treatment consisted of 10-12 6-minute exposures (10-20 kG, 0.1-0.6 Hz). Results indicated beneficial effects in 25 of the 27 patients receiving the treatment.

nerve problems

A.G. Shiman, Use of Combined Methods of Magnetoelectrotherapy in the Treatment for Polineuropathies,

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (5),1993, p, 38-41.

Results of this study found that the use of magnetic fields (30-35 mT, 10 and 100 Hz) produced beneficial effects in 93 percent of patients suffering from nerve problems.

Ophthalmologic  Disorders

intraocular pressure

Bisvas, et al., "Possibilities of Magnetotherapy in Stabilization of Visual Function in Patients with Glaucoma,

" Vestn Oftalmol, 112(1),Jauary-March 1996, p. 6-8.

In this study, patients with primary open-angle glaucoma with compensated intraocular pressure were administered magnetotherapy.

The procedure was administered to a patient in a sitting posture with a magnetic inductor held before the eye. Sessions lasted 10 minutes and each course included 10 sessions. Following 4-5 months of therapy, results showed improved vision acuity 0.16 diopters, on an average of 29 out of 30 eyes with vision acuity below 1.0.

Sultanov MIu, Iskenderov GF, Tagi-zade NS, Seidbekov OS (1992)

[Our experience with the complex treatment of phlegmon of the lacrimal sac - Article in Russian].

Vestn Oftalmol May;108(3):16-18.

89 patients with lacrimal sac phlegmons, 76 women and 13 men, aged 16 to 78, were given multiple-modality treatment, consisting in Group 1 (43 patients) of traditional methods, such as UHF therapy, antibiotics, sulfonamides, symptomatic therapy, dacryocystorhinostomy after complete cessation of inflammation, and in group 2 (46 patients) including sessions of intermittent magnetic field (IMF) exposure, antibiotics, and early dacryocystorhinostomy. Sparing technique was used in all operations, carried out under local anesthesia with 2% procaine or trimecaine. IMF exposure was an effective therapeutic means characterized by antiinflammatory, resolving, and analgesic effects. IMF sessions and early dacryocystorhinostomy enhance cessation of inflammation and improve the treatment efficacy: remote results of surgery were excellent in 80% of Group 1 patients and in 90.9% of Group 2 patients.

IMF exposure halved the terms of medical and social rehabilitation of patients with lacrimal sac phlegmons.

PMID: 1481321, UI: 93127383

glaucoma (open-angle)

Bisvas, et al., "Possibilities of Magnetotherapy in Stabilization of Visual Function in Patients with Glaucoma,

" Vestn Oftalmol, 112(1),Jauary-March 1996, p. 6-8.

 In this study, patients with primary open-angle glaucoma with compensated intraocular pressure were administered magnetotherapy. The procedure was administered to a patient in a sitting posture with a magnetic inductor held before the eye. Sessions lasted 10 minutes and each course included 10 sessions. Following 4-5 months of therapy, results showed improved vision acuity 0.16 diopters, on an average of 29 out of 30 eyes with vision acuity below 1.0.

Glaucoma (open-angle)

[The effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the hemodynamics of eyes with glaucoma]  [Article in Russian]

Tsisel'skii IuV, Kashintseva LT, Skrinnik AV.  Oftalmol Zh 1990;(3):154-7

The influence of pulse electromagnetic field (PEMF) on hemodynamics of the eye in open-angle glaucoma has been studied by means of a method and a device proposed at the Filatov Institute. The PEMF characteristics are: impulse frequency--50 Hz, exposition--0,02 sec., impulse shape--square, rate of impulse rise--4.10(4) c rate of magnetic induction rise--2.10(4) mT/c, amplitude value of magnetic induction at the impulse height--9.0--8.5 mT, duration of the procedure--7 min., a course--10 sessions. Observations over 150 patients (283 eyes) with latent, initial and advanced glaucoma have shown a positive influence of PEMF on hemodynamics of a glaucomatous eye: a rise of rheographic coefficient and relative volume pulse in 87,99 and 81,63%, respectively. The degree of the rise and restoration frequency of rheographic values of the glaucomatous eye under the influence of PEMF to the age norm was more expressed at initial stages of the glaucomatous process (latent and initial glaucoma).

PMID: 2255478 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

primary open-angle glaucoma

Bisvas, et al., "Possibilities of Magnetotherapy in Stabilization of Visual Function in Patients with Glaucoma,

" Vestn Oftalmol, 112(1),Jauary-March 1996, p. 6-8.

In this study, patients with primary open-angle glaucoma with compensated intraocular pressure were administered magnetotherapy.

 The procedure was administered to a patient in a sitting posture with a magnetic inductor held before the eye. Sessions lasted 10 minutes and each course included 10 sessions. Following 4-5 months of therapy, results showed improved vision acuity 0.16 diopters, on an average of 29 out of 30 eyes with vision acuity below 1.0.

retinal dystrophy

Shlygin VV, Arnautov LN, Maksimov GV (1993) [A possible mechanism for treating retinal dystrophy with an EMF

[Article in Russian]. Biofizika May;38(3):507-510.

A mathematical model is proposed to explain how electromagnetic treatment can restore vision in retinal dystrophy induced by pathology of receptive cells. Possible relationship between the treatment efficiency and dystrophy localization is shown.

PMID: 8512960, UI: 93291210

Skripka VK (1981)

[Results of the use of magnetic field in ophthalmology [Article in Russian].

Oftalmol Zh 36(6):321-325. PMID: 7312260, UI: 82081265

Tsisel'skii IuV (1990)

[The effect of a pulsed EMF on ocular hydrodynamics in open-angle glaucoma [Article in Russian].

Oftalmol Zh 2:89-92.

The influence of PEMF on ocular hydrodynamics in open-angle glaucoma was studied in 150 patients (283 eyes) with latent, initial and advanced glaucoma using the method and the device of the Filatov Institute. Impulse frequency was 50 Hz, duration 0.02 s, pulse form rectangular, rate of pulse rise 4/10(-4) s, rate of magnetic induction rise 2/10(-4) mT/s, amplitude value of magnetic induction at the pulse level 8.0-8.5 mT. The procedure was for 7 m, for 10 sessions. PEMF improved ocular hydrodynamics in open-angle glaucoma. It raised aqueous outflow and production, and reduced the Becker's coefficient. Outflow was normalized in 25, 18 and 17% of cases at the latent stage, initial stage and advanced stage, respectively. PEMF is recommended as part of complex treatment of open-angle glaucoma.

PMID: 2280950, UI: 91125806

Tsisel'skii IuV, Kashintseva LT, Skrinnik AV (1990)

[The effect of a pulsed EMF on the hemodynamics of eyes with glaucoma - Article in Russian].

Oftalmol Zh 3:154-157.

The influence of PEMF on ocular hydrodynamics in open-angle glaucoma was studied in 150 patients (283 eyes) with latent, initial and advanced glaucoma using the method and the device of the Filatov Institute. Impulse frequency was 50 Hz, duration 0.02 s, pulse form rectangular, rate of pulse rise 4/10(-4) s, rate of magnetic induction rise 2/10(-4) mT/s, amplitude value of magnetic induction at the pulse level 8.0-8.5 mT. The procedure was for 7 m, for 10 sessions. PEMF improved ocular hydrodynamics in open-angle glaucoma. Rheographic coefficient and relative volume pulse rose in 88 and 82%, respectively. The degree of the rise and restoration frequency of rheographic values of the glaucomatous eye under the influence of PEMF to the age norm was more obvious in latent and initial glaucoma.

PMID: 2255478, UI: 91074480

Vainshtein ES, Zobina LV, Gurtovaia EE (1981)

[Alternating magnetic field in the treatment of various eye diseases of vascular etiology - Article in Russian].

Oftalmol Zh 36(6):325-328. PMID: 7312261, UI: 82081266

Zaslavskii AIu, Markarov GS, Markarova IS, Loskutov IA, Gelis IuS, Tarutin NP (1996)

[Ophthalmologic electromagnetic stimulator - Article in Russian]. Med Tekh Sep;5:43-45.

They describe the design and specifications of an ophthalmological EM stimulator, its new therapeutic factor (the pulse low-frequency field combined with a static magnetic field).

A procedure for treating eye diseases and recommendations how to use the therapeutic factor in ophthalmology are given.

PMID: 8992189, UI: 97098985

L.S. Teren'eva, Treatment of Chronic Productive Inflammation of Orbital Tissues with a Pulsed Electromagnetic Field,

Oftalmol Zh, 1,1996, p. 1-5.

This controlled study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields in patients suffering from chronic productive inflammation or orbital tissue. PEMF treatment consisted of 7-10 minute daily exposures over a period of 10 days. Controls received conventional treatment only. Both groups showed good improvement, but patients treated with the PEMFs recovered significantly faster than did controls.

Osteoarthritis

Trock DH, Bollet AJ, Markoll R. Department of Medicine, Danbury Hospital, CT.

The Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee and Cervical Spine.

Report of Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Trials,"

Journal of Rheumatology, 21(10),1994, p. 1903-1911.

Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that exposure to pulsed electromagnetic fields had beneficial effects in the treatment of patients suffering from painful osteo arthritis of the knee or cervical spine.

OBJECTIVE. We conducted a randomized, double blind clinical trial to determine the effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and cervical spine.

METHODS. A controlled trial of 18 half-hour active or placebo treatments was conducted in 86 patients with OA of the knee and 81 patients with OA of the cervical spine, in which pain was evaluated using a 10 cm visual analog scale, activities of daily living using a series of questions (answered by the patient as never, sometimes, most of the time, or always), pain on passive motion (recorded as none, slight, moderate, or severe), and joint tenderness (recorded using a modified Ritchie scale). Global evaluations of improvement were made by the patient and examining physician. Evaluations were made at baseline, midway, end of treatment, and one month after completion of treatment.

RESULTS. Matched pair t tests showed extremely significant changes from baseline for the treated patients in both knee and cervical spine studies at the end of treatment and the one month followup observations, whereas the changes in the placebo patients showed lesser degrees of significance at the end of treatment, and had lost significance for most variables at the one month followup. Means of the treated group of patients with OA of the knee showed greater improvement from baseline values than the placebo group by the end of treatment and at the one month followup observation. Using the 2-tailed t test, at the end of treatment the differences in the means of the 2 groups reached statistical significance for pain, pain on motion, and both the patient overall assessment and the physician global assessment. The means of the treated patients with OA of the cervical spine showed greater improvement from baseline than the placebo group for most variables at the end of treatment and one month followup observations; these differences reached statistical significance at one or more observation points for pain, pain on motion, and tenderness.

CONCLUSION. PEMF has therapeutic benefit in painful OA of the knee or cervical spine.

Publication Types: Clinical Trial Meta-Analysis Multicenter Study Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 7837158 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

D.H. Trock, Treatment of Osteoarthritis with Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields,"

Bioelectric Repair and Growth Society, Vol. XIII, 13th Annual Meeting,10-13 October 1993, Dana Point, CA, p. 14.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields produced significant favorable effects in patients suffering from osteoarthritis.

A double-blind trial of the clinical effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields in osteoarthritis.

Trock DH, Bollet AJ, Dyer RH Jr, Fielding LP, Miner WK, Markoll R.

Department of Medicine (Rheumatology), Danbury Hospital, CT 06810.

J Rheumatol 1993 Mar;20(3):456-60

OBJECTIVE. Further evaluation of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF), which have been observed to produce numerous biological effects, and have been used to treat delayed union fractures for over a decade.

METHODS. In a pilot, double-blind randomized trial, 27 patients with osteoarthritis (OA), primarily of the knee, were treated with PEMF. Treatment consisted of 18 half-hour periods of exposure over about 1 month in a specially designed noncontact, air-coil device. Observations were made on 6 clinical variables at baseline, midpoint of therapy, end of treatment and one month later; 25 patients completed treatment.

RESULTS. An average improvement of 23-61% occurred in the clinical variables observed with active treatment, while 2 to 18% improvement was observed in these variables in placebo treated control patients. No toxicity was observed.

CONCLUSION. The decreased pain and improved functional performance of treated patients suggests that this configuration of PEMF has potential as an effective method of improving symptoms in patients with OA. This method warrants further clinical investigation.

Publication Types: Clinical Trial Randomized Controlled Trial PMID: 8478852 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Low-amplitude, extremely low frequency magnetic fields for the treatment of osteoarthritic knees: a double-blind clinical study.

Jacobson JI, Gorman R, Yamanashi WS, Saxena BB, Clayton L.

Institute of Theoretical Physics and Advanced Studies for Biophysical Research,

Perspectivism Foundation, 2006 Mainsail Cir, Jupiter, FL 33477-1418, USA. drjjacobson@aol.com

Altern Ther Health Med 2001 Sep-Oct;7(5):54-64, 66-9

CONTEXT: Noninvasive magnetotherapeutic approaches to bone healing have been successful in past clinical studies.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of low-amplitude, extremely low frequency magnetic fields on patients with knee pain due to osteoarthritis.

DESIGN: Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical study. SETTING: 4 outpatient clinics.

PARTICIPANTS: 176 patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups, the placebo group (magnet off) or the active group (magnet on).

INTERVENTION: 6-minute exposure to each magnetic field signal using 8 exposure sessions for each treatment session, the number of treatment sessions totaling 8 during a 2-week period, yielded patients being exposed to uniform magnetic fields for 48 minutes per treatment session 8 times in 2 weeks. The magnetic fields used in this study were generated by a Jacobson Resonator, which consists of two 18-inch diameter (46-cm diameter) coils connected in series, in turn connected to a function generator via an attenuator to obtain the specific amplitude and frequency. The range of magnetic field amplitudes used was from 2.74 x 10(-7) to 3.4 x 10(-8) G, with corresponding frequencies of 7.7 to 0.976 Hz.

OUTCOME MEASURES: Each subject rated his or her pain level from 1 (minimal) to 10 (maximal) before and after each treatment and 2 weeks after treatment. Subjects also recorded their pain intensity in a diary while outside the treatment environment for 2 weeks after the last treatment session (session 8) twice daily: upon awakening (within 15 minutes) and upon retiring (just before going to bed at night).

RESULTS: Reduction in pain after a treatment session was significantly (P < .001) greater in the magnet-on group (46%) compared to the magnet-off group (8%).

 CONCLUSION: Low-amplitude, extremely low frequency magnetic fields are safe and effective for treating patients with chronic knee pain due to osteoarthritis.

Publication Types: Clinical Trial PMID: 11565402 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A.J. Bollet, Treatment of Osteoarthritis with Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields,

European Bioelectromagnetics Association, 2nd Congress,9-11 December 1993, Bled Slovenia, p. 46.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study showed that treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields yielded significant benefits in patients suffering from osteoarthritis of the knee or cervical spine.

PEMF therapy (25 G, 5-24 Hz) consisted of 18 30-minute exposures over a period of 3-4 weeks.

L. Yurkiv, The Use of Changeable Magnetic Field in Treatment of Osteoarthrosis,

European Bioelectromagnetics Association, 3rd International Congress,29 February-3 March 1996, Nancy France.

This controlled study examined the effects of changeable magnetic fields  coupled with more conventional therapies in the treatment of patients suffering from osteoarthrosis. Magnetic therapy consisted of daily 20 minute exposures for a total of 12 sessions. Results showed more rapid improvements of immunological indices and alleviation of symptoms associated with the disease among patients receiving the combination therapy compared to those treated only conventionally.

Osteochondrosis

Osteochondrosis

L.L. Butenko,

The Use of Alternating Magnetic Fields in Spinal Osteochondrosis, Mechanisms of Biological Action of Electromagnetic Fields,

 27-31 October 1987, Pushchino, USSR, USSR Academy of Sciences, Research Center for Biological Studies, Inst. of Biological Physics, Coordination Council of Comecon Countries and Yugoslavia for Research in the Fields of Biological Physics, p. 183.

This study examined the effects of alternating magnetic fields (50 Hz, 10-50 mT) combined with conservative therapy in patients suffering from spinal osteochondrosis. Treatment consisted of 20-minute exposures over a total of 20-25 such exposures per course. Results showed clinical benefits in 95 percent of patients receiving the combination treatment compared to just 30 percent among controls.

Mitbreit IM, Savchenko AG, Volkova LP, Proskurova GI, Shubina AV (1986)

[Low-frequency magnetic field in the complex treatment of patients with lumbar osteochondrosis - Article in Russian].

Ortop Travmatol Protez Oct;10:24-27. PMID: 3808656, UI: 87117093

Osteonecrosis

Osteonecrosis

N.S. Eftekhar, Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head Treated Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs): A Preliminary Report,

1983, p. 306-330.

This pilot study found that the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields produced beneficial effects in patients suffering from osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

osteonecrosis

M. Hinsenkamp, Preliminary Results in Electromagnetic Field Treatment of Osteonecrosis,

Bioelectrochem Bioenerg.30,1993, p. 229-236.

This study examined the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of osteonecrosis.

Compared to published findings concerning surgical treatment, results showed PEMF therapy to be superior in producing improvement

Osteonecrosis

"Treatment of Osteonecrosis of the Hip with Specific, Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs): A Preliminary Clinical Report"

by C. A. L. Bassett et al, Journal of Bone Circulation. 

Osteoporosis

osteoporosis

F. Tabrah, Bone Density Changes in Osteoporosis-prone Women Exposed to Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs),

Journal of Bone Miner Res, 5(5),May 1990, p. 437-442.

This study examined the effects of a 72-Hz pulsating electromagnetic field administered for 10 hours per day over a period of 12 weeks on bone density in women prone to osteoporosis. Results found significant increases in bone mineral density in the area of EMF exposure.

osteoporosis

T.W. Bilotta, The Use of Low-Frequency Low Magnitude PEMFs in Treatment of Osteoporosis,

Journal of Bioelectr, 8(2),1989, p. 316.

In this study, osteoporosis patients received treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields (50 G, 50-100 Hz) for 30 minutes per session over a period of two years involving 20 sessions. These subjects were compared to similar patients treated with calcitonin.

Results indicated PEMF to be effective in reducing pain, and to be even more so when combined with the conventional drug treatment.

osteoporosis

T.W. Bilotta, Influence of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Post-Menopausal Osteoporosis, First World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 14-19June 1992, Lake Buena Vista, FL, p. 78.

This controlled study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields in women suffering from postmenopausal osteoporosis. Treatment consisted of daily 30-minute exposures for 20 days every six months. Results showed that PEMF treatment combined with 100 IU per day of nasal spray synthetic salmon calcitonin arrested bone decrease and significantly increased bone mass relative to patients receiving drug therapy alone.

osteoporosis

G. Saveriano S. Ricci,Treatment of Senile Osteoporosis Caused Rachialgia with Low-Frequency PEMFs,

Journal of Bioelectr, 8(2),1989, p. 321.

Results of this study found the use of total-body low-frequency magnetic fields (60 G, 50-100 Hz) to be effective in the treatment of patients suffering from osteoporosis-related symptoms. Treatment consisted of a total of 15 exposures of 30 minutes each.

Otitis Externa

V.V. Sunstov, Treatment of Acute Diffuse Otitis Externa Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields,

Vestn Otorinolaringol, 6, 1991, p. 35-38.

This study examined the effects synchronizing pulse waves in the impaired area when treating patients suffering from acute diffuse otitis externa with low-level magnetic fields in combination with conventional therapies. Patients were divided into three groups. The first received ultrahigh-frequency or very-high-frequency electromagnetic waves. The second received 15-minute daily exposures to 50-Hz alternating or pulsating 20-mT magnetic fields. The third group of patients were treated switching on the same magnetic fields only during propagation of the pulse wave through the ear vessels. Results showed a 100 percent recovery rate in patients across all three groups, with recovery taking the least amount of time among those in group 3.

Pancreatitis

A.A. Fedorov, The Use of a Low-frequency Magnetic Field in the Combined Therapy of Chronic Pancreatitis,

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (5), September-October 1990, p. 28-30.

This study found that sinusoidal and continuous low-frequency alternating magnetic field exhibited beneficial effects in patients suffering from chronic pancreatitis.

Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease and depression.

M.S. George, et al., "Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Neuropsychiatric Tool for the 21st Century,

" Journal of Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci, 8(4),Fall 1996, p. 373-382.

Noting that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a new and noninvasive method of direct cortical neuron stimulation, this review article discusses recent studies showing that TMS has led to improvements in symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease and depression.

R. Sandyk, Brief Communication: Electromagnetic Fields Improve Visuospatial Performance and Reverse Agraphia in a Parkinsonian Patient, International Journal of Neurosci, 87(3-4),November 1996, p. 209-217

This article reports on the case of a 73-year-old male Parkinson's patients suffering from disabling resting and postural tremors in the right hand, as well as other symptoms. Two successive 20-minute treatments with AC pulsed electromagnetic fields of 7.5-picotesla intensity and 5-Hz frequency sinusoidal wave led to improvements in visuospatial performance and a legible signature.

Significant improvements in Parkinsonian motor symptoms were also seen following additional treatments.

R. Sandyk R.P. Iacono, Reversal of Visual Neglect in Parkinson's Disease Treatment with picoTesla Range Magnetic Fields,

International Journal of Neurosci, 73(1-2),November 1993, p. 93-107.

This article reports on the case of a medicated 61-year-old Parkinson's patient who experienced rapid reversal of symptoms following a single external application of picotesla-range magnetic fields.

R. Sandyk, Magnetic Fields in the Therapy of Parkinsonism, International Journal of Neurosci, 66(3-4),October 1992, p. 209-235.

This article reports on four Parkinson's patients who experienced significant improvement in symptoms following treatment with picotesla-range magnetic fields. Two additional patients suffering from Parkinson's-related dementia experienced significant improvements in visuospatial impairment.

M.S. George, et al., "Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Neuropsychiatric Tool for the 21st Century,

" Journal of Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci, 8(4),Fall 1996, p. 373-382.

Noting that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a new and noninvasive method of direct cortical neuron stimulation, this review article discusses recent studies showing that TMS has led to improvements in symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease and depression.

J. Bardasano, Extracranial Device for Noninvasive Neurological Treatments with Pulsating ELF Magnetic Fields,

Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine,8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.

Results of this study showed that the application of ELF magnetic fields via a plastic helmet device housing a set of coils (generating fields of 8 Hz and 7.5 pT) produced beneficial clinical effects after 30 minutes in patients suffering Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis.

R.Sandyk,Parkinsonian Micrographia Reversed Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields,

International Journal of Neurosci, 81(1-2),March 1995, p. 83-93.

This article reports on the cases of two Parkinson's patients who experienced improvements in motor symptoms following treatment with external application of weak electromagnetic fields in the picotesla range.

R. Sandyk, "Improvement in Short-term Visual Memory Weak Electromagnetic Fields in Parkinson's Disease,

International Journal of Neurosci, 81(1-2),March 1995, p. 67-82.

This article reports on the cases of three Parkinson's patients on full medication who exhibited an improvement in right hemispheric functions following a series of treatments with external application of electromagnetic fields in the picotesla range.

R. Sandyk, "A Drug Naive Parkinsonian Patient Successfully Treated with Weak Electromagnetic Fields,

International Journal of Neurosci, 79(1-2),November 1994, p. 99-110.

This article reports on the case of a nonmedicated 49-year-old male Parkinson's patient who experienced a dramatic improvement in motor, depressive, and cognitive symptoms following treatment with brief extracranial applications of picotesla-range electromagnetic fields.

R. Sandyk R.P. Iacono, Reversal of Micrographia in Parkinson's Disease Application of picoTesla Range Magnetic Fields,

International Journal of Neurosci 77(1-2),July 1994, p. 77-84.

 This article reports on the case of a 61-year-old Parkinson's patient who experienced improvements in the severity of motor problems 30 minutes after treatment with external application of weak electromagnetic fields in the picotesla range.

Sham treatment had no such effects in the same patient.

R. Sandyk, Improvement in Word-fluency Performance in Parkinson's Disease Administration of Electromagnetic Fields,

International Journal of Neurosci, 77(1-2),July 1994, p. 23-46.

This article reports on the cases of five Parkinsonian patients on full medication who experienced a marked improvement in performance on Thurstone's Word-Fluency Test following treatment with a series of extremely-low-intensity electromagnetic fields in the picotesla range and of 5-8 Hz frequency.

R. Sandyk, Treatment of Parkinson's Disease with Magnetic Fields Reduces the Requirement for Antiparkinsonian Medications, International Journal of Neurosci, 74(1-4),January-February 1994, p. 191-201.

This article reports on the case of a 69-year-old Parkinsonian patient who was able to discontinue most medication for two weeks following two treatment sessions with extracranial picotesla-range magnetic fields. Symptoms recurred after three weeks and the patient received four more magnetic field sessions on consecutive days after four weeks. The patient was then able to discontinue medications completely.

R. Sandyk, Reversal of a Visuoconstructional Deficit in Parkinson's Disease Application of External Magnetic Fields: A Report of Five Cases, International Journal of Neurosci, 75(3-4),April 1994, p. 213-228.

This article reports on the cases of five medicated Parkinsonian patients who experienced improvements in motor, behavioral, and autonomic functions, and in visuoconstructional tasks following treatment with extracranial application of magnetic fields in the picotesla range.

R. Sandyk, Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease is Improved Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields,

International Journal of Neurosci, 85(1-2),March 1996, p. 111-124.

This article reports on the cases of three medicated Parkinsonian patients who experienced relief from disabling periods of freezing gait following treatment with extracerebral applications of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the picotesla range.

R. Sandyk, Improvement of Body Image Perception in Parkinson's Disease Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields,

International Journal of Neurosci, 82(3-4),June 1995, p. 269-283.

The cases of four nondemented Parkinsonian patients under full medication are discussed in this article. These patients performed poorly on human figure drawing tests administered to measure body image perception. Treatment with extracerebral applications of picotesla-range intensity electromagnetic fields led to marked improvements in body image perception as seen on a repeat of the same test each patient.

R. Sandyk, Reversal of Visuospatial Deficit on the Clock Drawing Test in Parkinson's Disease Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields, International Journal of Neurosci, 82(3-4),June 1995, p. 255-268.

This article reports on the cases of four medicated Parkinsonian patients who experienced reversal of visuospatial impairments as measured the Clock Drawing Test following treatment with externally applied weak electromagnetic fields of picotesla-range intensity.

R. Sandyk K. Derpapas, The Effects of External picoTesla Range Magnetic Fields on the EEG in Parkinson's Disease,

International Journal of Neurosci, 70(1-2),May 1993, p. 85-96.

This article reports on the case of a 68-year-old male patient suffering from Parkinson's disease over a period of 7 years. The patient had experienced little relief from traditional medical therapy. Treatment with external application of picotesla-range magnetic fields led to quick improvements with respect to tremor and foot dystonia, gait, postural reflexes, mood, anxiety, and cognitive and autonomic functions.

R. Sandyk K. Derpapas, Further Observations on the Unique Efficacy of PicoTesla Range Magnetic Fields in Parkinson's Disease, International Journal of Neurosci, 69(1-4),March-April 1993, p. 67-83

This article reports on the cases of four Parkinsonian patients who exhibited significant improvements in motor symptoms following treatment with externally applied magnetic fields of picotesla-range intensity.

R. Sandyk R.P. Iacono, Rapid Improvement of Visuoperceptive Functions picoTesla Range Magnetic Fields in Patients with Parkinson's Disease, International Journal of Neurosci, 70(3-4),June 1993, p. 233-254.

This article reports on two cases of fully medicated Parkinson's patients who experienced enhanced visuoperceptive functions as measured numerous drawing tests following extracranial treatment with picotesla-range magnetic fields.

R. Sandyk, The Effects of PicoTesla Range Magnetic Fields on Perceptual Organization and Visual Memory in Parkinsonism, International Journal of Neurosci, 73(3-4),December 1993, p. 207-219

This article reports on the case of a 69-year-old Parkinsonian patient on full medication who experienced a marked improvement on several different drawing tests following 30 minutes of treatment with picotesla-range magnetic fields.

R. Sandyk, Magnetic Fields in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease, International Journal of Neurosci, 63(1-2),March 1992, p. 141-150.

This article reports on the case of a Parkinson's patient suffering from severe movement problems who received treatment with external artificial weak magnetic fields with a frequency of 2 Hz and intensity of 7.5 picotesla over a period of 6 minutes. Results showed a significant attenuation in disability and near total reversal of the symptoms lasting approximately 72 hours. The patient then applied equivalent magnetic fields on a daily basis at home. Sustained improvement was seen throughout an observation of one month.

R. Sandyk, Weak Magnetic Fields in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease with the Phenomenon,

International Journal of Neurosci, 66(1-2),September 1992, p. 97-106.

This article reports on the case of a 67-year-old male patient suffering from Parkinson's disease and levodopa-related motor fluctuations. Treatment with the application of external weak magnetic fields led to improvements in general Parkinsonian symptoms along with the amelioration of symptoms.

Pseudoarthrosis

Cadossi, R. et al.,

"Low Frequency Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields in the Treatment of Delayed Unions and Acquired Pseudo-Arthrosis",

Abstract, 2nd Annual BRAGS, Oxford, U.K. Sep. 20-22, 1982.

Pseudarthroses (Surgically-Resistant) / Non-Unions

Bassett, C. A. L. et al.;

"A Non-Operative Salvage of Surgically-Resistant Pseudarthroses and Non-Unions by Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields: A Preliminary Report";

Clin. Orthoped. and Rel. Research; No. 124; pp. 128 to 143, (May 1977).

Pseudoarthrosis

J.S. Kort, et al., Congenital Pseudoarthrosis of the Tibia: Treatment with Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields,

Clin Orthop, (165), May 1982, p. 124-137.

In this study, 92 congenital pseudoarthrosis patients received treatment with pulsing electromagnetic fields.

Results indicated a 76-percent rate of lesion recovery.

Respiratory Problems

Respiratory Dyskinesia

R. Sandyk K. Derpapas, Successful Treatment of Respiratory Dyskinesia with picoTesla Range Magnetic Fields,

International Journal of Neurosci, 75(1-2), March 1994, p. 91-102.

This article reports on the case of a schizophrenic patient suffering from respiratory difficulties associated with neuroleptic withdrawal. Treatment using external application of picotesla-range magnetic fields quickly attenuated the severity of such problems.

pyoinflammatory bronchopulmonary complications

G.A. Mozhaev IIu Tikhonovskii,

The Prevention and Treatment of Suppurative-inflammatory Complications in the Bronchopulmonary System During Prolonged Artificial Ventilation,

Anesteziol Reanimatol, (4),July-August 1002, p. 47-51.

Results of this study showed that the use of low-frequency magnetic fields helped to prevent and treat critically ill patients suffering from pyoinflammatory bronchopulmonary complications, and to prevent such complications as well.

Sleep Disorders

R. Hajdukovic, Effects of Low Energy Emission Therapy (LEET) on Sleep Structure,

First World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 14-19June 1992, Lake Buena Vista, FL, p. 92.

Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that low-energy-emission therapy significantly improved sleeping patterns among patients suffering from chronic psychophysiological insomnia.

Therapy was administered 3 times per week, always in late afternoon and for 20 minutes, over a period of 4 weeks.

M. Erman, Low-Energy Emission Therapy (LEET) Treatment for somnia,"

Bioelectromagnetics Society, 13th Annual Meeting, 23-27 June 1991, Salt Lake City, UT, p. 69.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of low-energy emission therapy in patients suffering from insomnia. Treatment consisted of 3 exposures per week over a 4-week period. Results showed significant increases in total sleep time among patients in the treatment group relative to controls.

chronic insomnia /generalized anxiety

C. Guilleminault B. Pasche,Clinical Effects of Low Energy Emission Therapy,

Bioelectromagnetics Society, 15th Annual Meeting, 13-17 June 1993, Los Angeles, CA, p. 84.

This review article notes that studies have found low-energy emission therapy to be effective in the treatment of chronic insomnia, and suggests that it may also be of value for patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorders.

Skin Disorders

Aleksaniants GD (1987)

[Use of an EMF and iodine-bromine baths in the complex treatment of patients with circumscribed scleroderma

[Article in Russian].

Vestn Dermatol Venerol 3:56-58. PMID: 3604436, UI: 87266118

Spinal Cord Injury

M.K. Sheriff, Neuromodulation of Detrusor Hyper-reflexia Functional Magnetic Stimulation of the Sacral Roots,

British Journal of Urology, 78(1),July 1996, p. 39-46.

This study examined the effects of functional magnetic stimulation used to treat spinal cord injury in seven male patients.

 Results showed the treatment to be an effective noninvasive approach.

Ligament and  tendon problems

Tendonitis (rotator cuff, persistent)

Binder A, Parr G, Hazleman B, Fitton-Jackson S (1984) Pulsed EMF therapy of persistent rotator cuff tendinitis: A double-blind controlled assessment. Lancet Mar 31;1(8379):695-698.

The value of PEMF for the treatment of persistent rotator cuff tendinitis was tested in a double-blind controlled study in 29 patients whose symptoms were refractory to steroid injection and other conventional conservative measures. The treated group (15 patients) had a significant benefit compared with the control group (14 patients) during the first 4 wk of the study, when the control group received a placebo. In the second 4 wk, when all patients were on active coils, no significant differences were noted between the groups. This lack of difference persisted over the third phase, when neither group received any treatment for 8 wk. At the end of the study 19 (65%) of the 29 patients were symptomless and 5 others much improved. PEMF therapy may thus be useful in the treatment of severe and persistent rotator cuff and possibly other chronic tendon lesions.

Publication Types: Clinical trial Randomized controlled trial PMID: 6143039, UI: 84166793

Chard MD, Hazleman BL (1988)

Pulsed EMF treatment of chronic lateral humeral epicondylitis.

Clin Exp Rheumatol Jul;6(3):330-332.

Publication Types: Letter PMID: 3180555, UI: 89029346

Devereaux MD, Hazleman BL, Thomas PP (1985) Chronic lateral humeral epicondylitis: a double-blind controlled assessment of pulsed EMF therapy. Clin Exp Rheumatol Oct;3(4):333-336.

PEMFs are beneficial in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinitis.

As lateral humeral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a similar chronic tendon lesion, 30 patients with both clinical and thermographic evidence of tennis elbow were randomly allocated to receive either active or inactive PEMF therapy. Treatment was continued for a minimum period of 8 wk.

At this time there was no statistical difference between the two groups.

Publication Types: Clinical trial Randomized controlled trial PMID: 4085165, UI: 86106969

Currier DP, Ray JM, Nyland J, Rooney JG, Noteboom JT, Kellogg R (1993)

Effects of electrical and electromagnetic stimulation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther Apr;17(4):177-184. Division of Physical Therapy, Univ of Kentucky Med Ctr, Lexington 40536-0079.

A need exists to develop new methods of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) that are both effective and relatively pain-free. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effects of both NMES and a new method of EM (NMES/PEMF) stimulation for reducing girth loss and for reducing pain and muscle weakness of the knee extensor muscles in patients during the first 6 wk after reconstructive surgery of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). 17 patients receiving ACL reconstructive surgery participated as a control group (N=3), as an NMES group (N=7), and with combined NMES and magnetic field stimulation (NMES/PEMF) (N=7). Patients receiving NMES/PEMF rated each type of stimulation for perceived pain and were measured for their torque. Torque results revealed a mean decrease of 13.1% for NMES/PEMF patients. The mean% of thigh girth decreased 8.3% for controls, 0.5% for NMES, and 2.3% for NMES/PEMF patients.

The NMES/PEMF patients rated NMES as causing about twice the pain intensity as NMES/PEMF during treatments.

Both NMES and NMES/PEMF were effective in reducing girth loss and that NMES/PEMF was less painful than NMES alone in treating patients after ACL reconstruction. PMID: 8467342, UI: 93222888

Tourette's Syndrome

This article reports on the case of a 6-year-old boy suffering from Tourette's syndrome who experienced improvements in visuoconstructional and visuomotor skills, along with more general symptomatic improvements, following the extracranial application of electromagnetic fields in the picotesla range of intensity.

R. Sandyk, Improvement of Right Hemispheric Functions in a Child with Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome Weak Electromagnetic Fields," International Journal of Neurosci, 81(3-4),April 1995, p. 199-213.

Ulcers (Trophic)

Alekseenko AV, Gusak VV (1991)

[Treatment of trophic ulcers of the lower extremities using a magnetic field - Article in Russian].

 Klin Khir 7:60-63.

The experience with treatment of 126 patients with ulcerous-necrotic lesion of the lower extremities of different genesis was summarized. A comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment depending on a type of the magnetic field: the constant, alternating, or travelling impulse one was carried out. The most effective was the use of a travelling impulse magnetic field.

The data give grounds to recommend the wide use of magnetotherapy in the complex treatment of trophic ulcers of the lower extremities.

PMID: 1942838, UI: 92047074

ulcers (decubitus)

S. Comorosan, The Effect of Diapulse Therapy on the Healing of Decubitus Ulcer, Romanian Journal of Physiol, 30(1-2),1993, p. 41-45.

This placebo-controlled study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of decubitus ulcers in hospitalized elderly patients with stage II and III pressure ulcers.

Patients received daily PEMF stimulation in conjunction with conventional treatment for a period of up to 5 weeks.

The findings were that combined PEMF/conventional treatment was superior to conventional treatment and to the placebo received controls.

ulcers  (pressure, stage II and III)

C.A. Salzberg, The Effects of Non-ThermalPulsed Electromagnetic Energy on Wound Healing of Pressure Ulcers in Spinal Cord-Injured Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study,

Wounds: A Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice, 7(1),1995, p. 11-16.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that treatment with non thermalpulsed electromagnetic energy (PEMET) accelerated would healing in spinal cord injury patients suffering from stage II and III pressure ulcers. PEMET treatment consisted of pulsed 27.12-MHz energy . Energy was delivered the use of a treatment head placed in wound dressings, in 30-minute periods twice a day for 12 weeks or until sores healed.

Ulcers (pressure)

The Effects of Non-Thermal Pulsed Electromagnetic Energy on Wound Healing of Pressure Ulcers in Spinal Cord-Injured Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study, Ostomy Wound Manage, 41(3),1995, p. 42-51.

Salzberg CA, Cooper-Vastola SA, Perez F, Viehbeck MG, Byrne DW.

The objective of this randomized, double-blind study was to determine if non-thermal pulsed electromagnetic energy treatment significantly increases the healing rate of pressure ulcers in patients with spinal cord injuries. Subjects included volunteers admitted to a Veteran's Administration Hospital in New York over a 2 year period and consisted of 30 male spinal cord-injured patients, 20 with Stage II and 10 with Stage III pressure ulcers. Subjects were given non-thermal pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic energy treatment for 30 minutes twice daily for 12 weeks or until healed. The percentage of pressure ulcers healed was measured at one week. Of the 20 patients with Stage II pressure ulcers, the active group had a significantly increased rate of healing with a greater percentage of the ulcer healed at one week than the control group. After controlling for the baseline status of the pressure ulcer, active treatment was independently associated with a significantly shorter median time to complete healing of the ulcer. Stage III pressure ulcers healed faster in the treatment group but the sample size was limited. For spinal cord-injured men with Stage II pressure ulcers, active non-thermal pulsed electromagnetic energy treatment significantly improved healing.

Publication Types: Clinical Trial Randomized Controlled Trial PMID: 7546114 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

ulcers (recalcitrant, venous)

A portable pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) device to enhance healing of recalcitrant venous ulcers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. 

 Br J Dermatol 1992 Aug;127(2):147-54

Stiller MJ, Pak GH, Shupack JL, Thaler S, Kenny C, Jondreau L.

Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University Medical Center, New York.

A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre study assessed the clinical efficacy and safety of pulsed electromagnetic limb ulcer therapy (PELUT) in the healing of recalcitrant, predominantly venous leg ulcers. The portable device was used at home for 3 h daily during this 8-week clinical trial as an adjunct to a wound dressing. Wound surface area, ulcer depth and pain intensity were assessed at weeks 0, 4 and 8. At week 8 the active group had a 47.7% decrease in wound surface area vs. a 42.3% increase for placebo (P < 0.0002). Investigators' global evaluations indicated that 50% of the ulcers in the active group healed or markedly improved vs. 0% in the placebo group, and 0% of the active group worsened vs. 54% of the placebo group (P < 0.001). Significant decreases in wound depth (P < 0.04) and pain intensity (P < 0.04) favouring the active group were seen. Patients whose ulcers improved significantly after 8 weeks were permitted to continue double-blind therapy for an additional 4 weeks. Eleven active and one placebo patient continued therapy until week 12, with the active treatment group continuing to show improvement. There were no reports of adverse events attributable to this device. We conclude that the PELUT device is a safe and effective adjunct to non-surgical therapy for recalcitrant venous leg ulcers.

Publication Types:  Clinical Trial  Multicenter Study Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 1390143 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Ulcers (venous)

[Therapy of venous ulcers using pulsating electromagnetic fields--personal results] [Article in Serbo-Croatian (Roman)]

Duran V, Zamurovic A, Stojanovic S, Poljacki M, Jovanovic M, Durisic S.

Klinika za infektivne i dermatoveneroloske bolesti, Medicinski fakultet, Novi Sad. 

Med Pregl 1991;44(11-12):485-8 

The authors review the results of the treatment of venous varices by a pulsating electromagnetic field (PEMF), by the use of IVEMT-2 apparatus, treated at the Department of Dermatovenereology in Novi Sad and the Institute of Medical Rehabilitation. The treatment was carried out in 18 patients--5 men and 13 women, mean age 56 years, all with venous varices of post-thrombophlebitic origin. The number of sessions within the PEMF treatment was 10 per patient, each session lasting 15 min. The results were followed by measuring the varix surface prior to and after the treatment. The number of varices prior to the therapy was 26 and after the treatment was 20. The total surface of the varices before the treatment was 55183.90 mm2, the mean surface being 2122.46 mm2. After the treatment 6 varices epithelialized, while the total surface was 36902.51 mm2. The mean surface of the varices following the treatment was 1845.13 mm2.

The varix surface reduction rate following the treatment was 33.13%.

Considering the number of patients, the obtained results are preliminary and they reflect the benefits of PEMF for epithelialization of venous varices.

PMID: 1821449 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Ulcers (varicose, chronic)

Treatment of chronic varicose ulcers with pulsed electromagnetic fields: a controlled pilot study.   Ir Med J 1991 Jun;84(2):54-5

Todd DJ, Heylings DJ, Allen GE, McMillin WP.   Department of Dermatology, Belfast City Hospital.

To evaluate the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in healing of chronic varicose ulcers, 19 patients with this condition were included in a double-blind controlled clinical trial. All patients received standard ulcer therapy throughout the duration of the study and were randomly divided into two groups to receive either active or inactive PEMF therapy. Active therapy was provided by the use of a pait of helmholtz coils on a twice weekly basis over a five week period and inactive therapy was provided on an identical regimen with identical coils wound so that no magnetic field was produced when an electric current was passed through them. The clinician and patients were unable to distinguish the active or inactive coils. No statistically relevant difference was noted between the two groups in the healing rates of the ulcer, change in the lower leg girth, pain or infection rates. However there was a trend in favour of a decrease in ulcer size and lower leg girth in the group treated with active PEMF. As PEMF is a novel treatment for chronic varicose ulcers, more work needs to be done to establish treatment parameters and its usefulness in the treatment of this condition.

Publication Types: Controlled Clinical Trial  Randomized Controlled Trial PMID: 1894496 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

ulcers (pressure)

Accelerated wound healing of pressure ulcers by pulsed high peak power electromagnetic energy .

Itoh M, Montemayor JS Jr, Matsumoto E, Eason A, Lee MH, Folk FS.    Decubitus 1991 Feb;4(1):24-5, 29-34

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pulsed high-frequency, high peak power electromagnetic energy  in the healing of pressure ulcers. Patients with Stage II ulcers unhealed within three to 12 weeks and those with Stage III ulcers unhealed within eight to 168 weeks by conventional methods were included in the study. When electromagnetic energy was added to conventional therapy during the nine-month study, all 22 patients healed as evidenced by photographs and measurements of the ulcers. Stage II ulcers healed in one to six weeks (mean 2.33) and all Stage III ulcers healed in one to 22 weeks (mean 8.85). The increased healing time can provide significant cost savings and improved patient care. 

PMID: 1994961 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Comorosan S, Vasilco R, Arghiropol M, Paslaru L, Jieanu V, Stelea S (1993)

The effect of diapulsetherapy on the healing of decubitus ulcer.

Rom J Physiol Jan;30(1-2):41-45. Interdisciplinary Research Group, Fundeni Hospital, Bucharest, Romania.

The effect of high peak power PEMF  on treatment of pressure ulcers is under investigation. 20 elderly patients, aged from 60 to 84, hospitalized with chronic conditions and bearing long-standing pressure ulcers, are subjected to Diapulse sessions (1-2 daily), parallel to conventional treatment. 5 patients undergo conventional therapy, serving as control and 5 others follow conventional+placebo Diapulse treatment. All patients were daily monitored, concerning their clinical status and ulcers' healing. After a maximum 2-wk treatment, bulge healing rate was: 85% excellent and 15% very good healing under Diapulse therapy; in the placebo group, 80% patients show no improvement and 20% poor improvement; in the control group, 60% patients show no improvement and 40% poor improvement of ulcers. This investigation strongly advises for Diapulse treatment as a modern, uninvasive therapy of great efficiency and low social costs in resolving a serious, widespread medical problem.

Publication Types: Clinical trial PMID: 7982015, UI: 95072987

Duran V, Zamurovic A, Stojanovic S, Poljacki M, Jovanovic M, Durisic S (1991)

 [Therapy of venous ulcers using pulsating EMFs: personal results - Article in Serbo-Croatian (Roman)].

Med Pregl 44(11-12):485-488. Klinika za infektivne i dermatoveneroloske bolesti, Medicinski fakultet, Novi Sad.

The authors review the results of the treatment of venous varices by  PEMF,  treated at the Dept of Dermatovenereology in Novi Sad and the Institute of Med Rehabilitation. The treatment was carried out in 18 patients: 5 men and 13 women, mean age 56 yr, all with venous varices of post-thrombophlebitic origin. The number of sessions within the PEMF treatment was 10/patient, each session lasting 15 m. The results were followed by measuring the varix surface before and after the treatment. The number of varices before the therapy was 26 and after the treatment was 20. The total surface of the varices before the treatment was 55183.90 mm2, the mean surface being 2122.46 mm2. After the treatment 6 varices epithelialized, while the total surface was 36902.51 mm2. The mean surface of the varices after the treatment was 1845.13 mm2. The varix surface reduction rate after the treatment was 33.13%. Considering the number of patients, the obtained results are preliminary and they reflect the benefits of PEMF for epithelialization of venous varices.

PMID: 1821449, UI: 92334277

Ieran M, Zaffuto S, Bagnacani M, Annovi M, Moratti A, Cadossi R (1990)

 Effect of low frequency pulsing EMFs on skin ulcers of venous origin in humans: a double-blind study.

J Orthop Res Mar;8(2):276-282. Dept of Med Angiology, Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova, Reggio Emilia, Italy.

The effect of an EMF on the healing of skin ulcers of venous origin in humans has been investigated in a double-blind study. 44 patients have been admitted to the study; one-half were exposed to active stimulators (experimental group) and the remaining to dummy stimulators (control group). The stimulation was scheduled to last a maximum of 90 d. The success rate was significantly higher in the experimental group both at d 90 (p<.02) and in the follow-up period (p<.005). The effect of the EMF may last even when the stimulation is over. No ulcers worsened in the experimental group, while 4 worsened in the control group. 25% of the patients in the experimental group and 50% in the control group experienced recurrence of the ulcer.

Stimulation with an EMF is a useful adjunctive therapy in the management of these patients.

Publication Types: Clinical trial Controlled clinical trial PMID: 2303961, UI: 90155636

Stiller MJ, Pak GH, Shupack JL, Thaler S, Kenny C, Jondreau L (1992) A portable pulsed EMF (PEMF) device to enhance healing of recalcitrant venous ulcers: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Br J Dermatol Aug;127(2):147-154. Ronald O. Perelman Dept of Dermatology, New York Univ Med Ctr, New York.

A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre study assessed the clinical efficacy and safety of pulsed EM limb ulcer therapy  in the healing of recalcitrant, predominantly venous leg ulcers. The portable device was used at home for 3 h daily during this 8-wk clinical trial as an adjunct to a wound dressing. Wound surface area, ulcer depth and pain intensity were assessed at wk 0, 4 and 8. At wk 8 the active group had a 47.7% decrease in wound surface area vs. a 42.3% increase for placebo (p<.0002). 50% of the ulcers in the active group healed or markedly improved vs. 0% in the placebo group, and 0% of the active group worsened vs. 54% of the placebo group (p<.001). Significant decreases in wound depth (p<.04) and pain intensity (p<.04) favouring the active group were seen. Patients whose ulcers improved significantly after 8 wk were permitted to continue double-blind therapy for an additional 4 wk. 11 active and 1 placebo patient continued therapy until wk 12, with the active treatment group continuing to show improvement. There were no reports of adverse events attributable to this device.

The device was a safe and effective adjunct to non-surgical therapy for recalcitrant venous leg ulcers.

Publication Types: Clinical trial Multicenter study Randomized controlled trial PMID: 1390143, UI: 93002349

Kirillov IB, Suchkova ZV, Lastushkin AV, Sigaev AA, Nekhaeva TI (1996)

[Magentotherapy in the comprehensive treatment of vascular complications of diabetes mellitus - Article in Russian].

Klin Med (Mosk) 74(5):39-41.

320 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients were exposed to impulsed magnetic field, 100 control DM patients received conservative therapy alone. 270 patients had microangiopathy, macroangiopathy was diagnosed in 50 patients. Magnetotherapy in combination with conservative methods gave good and satisfactory results in 74% of patients versus 28% in control group. Metabolism stabilization resulted in some patients in reduced blood sugar. Use of magnetic field produced faster and longer response than conservative therapy.

PMID: 8999182, UI: 97062022

Venous  Insufficiency

E.I. Pasynkov, et al., "Therapeutic Use of Alternating Magnetic Field in the Treatment of Patients with Chronic Diseases of the Veins of the Lower Limbs," Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, 5, 1976, . 16-19.

This study examined the effects of alternating magnetic fields (15-20 minutes per day over a period of 20 days) in patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency, varicose veins, and trophic shin ulcers. Results showed good effects in 236 of the 271 patients receiving the treatment. Thirty-four patients reported satisfactory effects. Only one patient experienced no effects.

Y.B. Kirillov, et al., "Magnetotherapy for Obliterative Disease of the Vessels of the Legs,"

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, 3,1992, . 14-17.

 This study examined the effects of running impulse magnetic fields in patients suffering from vessel obliteration diseases of the legs. Treatment consisted of 15-20 whole body exposures (0.5-5 mT, 1-2 Hz) lasting 15-20 minutes each. Results showed treatment led to a significant reduction in the number of patients experiencing leg pain while at rest. Among patients previously unable to walk a 500-m distance, 52 percent were able to complete the distance following treatment. Circulation improved in 75-82 percent of patients.

Galimzianov FV (1990) [Electromagnetic therapy after phlebectomy - Article in Russian]. Khirurgiia (Mosk) May;5:108-110.

Comparative analysis of outpatient treatment by means of pulsed complexly-modulated EMF (PCMEMF) applied after phlebectomy in 30 patients with varicosity of the lower limbs showed the expediency of this type of treatment in the postoperative period. Exposure of the operated on limb to PCMEMF raises the efficacy of the rehabilitation measures and reduces the terms of the patients' temporary incapacity. PMID: 2391917, UI: 90362765

Pasynkov EI, Konstantinova GD, Vlasova EI (1976)

[Therapeutic use of alternating magnetic field in chronic diseases of the veins of the lower limbs - Article in Russian].

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult Sep;5:16-19. PMID: 1025854, UI: 77176520

Wound Healing

Nikolova L, Popov A, Klouchek E (1984) [Effect of interference current and low-frequency magnetic field on tissue regeneration [Article in Russian]. Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult May;3:19-23. PMID: 6332416, UI: 84301978

Kucherenko AE, Shevchuk VI (1976)

 [Treatment of various diseases of the limb stumps by alternating magnetic field [Article in Russian].

Klin Khir Jul;7:47-49. PMID: 1018446, UI: 77122057

B. Vukovic-Jankovic, Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Stimu-lated Pulsating Electromagnetic (PEMF) Field and Laser, Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine,

8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.

Results of this study indicated that treatment with pulsating electromagnetic field either alone or in combination with laser therapy exhibited healing effects with respect to peripheral nerve lesions and general wound healing relative to controls.

G.C. Coats,Pulsed Electromagnetic (Short-Wave) Energy Therapy,

British Journal of Sports Medicine, 23(4),1989, p. 213-216.

After a discussion of the mechanics involved in the use of pulsed electromagnetic energy in the treatment of disease, the author discusses findings from recent studies pointing to the therapy's effectiveness with respect to the treatment of acute soft-tissue lesions.

R.H.C. Bentall H.B. Eckstein, A Trial Involving the Use of Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Therapy on Children Undergoing Orchidopexy,

Z. Kinderchir, 17(4), 1975, p. 380-389.3

This double-blind study examined the effects of postoperative nonthermal pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields on edema formation and bruise healing in boys undergoing orchidopexy. Treatment involved exposure 3 times daily for the first 4 days following surgery. Significant effects with respect to rate of bruise resolution were reported in patients receiving the treatment relative to controls.

various health problems

Subrahmanyam S, Satyanarayana M, Rajeswari KR (1986) Alcoholism: newer methods of management.

 Indian J Physiol Pharmacol Jan;30(1):43-54.

Chronic alcoholics were selected from hospitals and AA Centres and subjected to different methods of treatment namely, psychotherapy, stereotaxic surgery, nonvolitional biofeedback, Yoga and meditation and extremely low frequency Pulsed Magnetic Field.

Each group comprised at least 20 subjects. All were males, aged 20-45 yr. Investigations done were clinical, psychological, biochemical, neurochemical and electrophysiological. Improvement was noticed in all the patients, the degree varying with the different methods of treatment. The patients were followed up at least for a period of 1 yr. PMID: 3818032, UI: 87136087

Strelkova NI, Maslovskaia SG, Gavrilkov AG, Strel'tsova EN (1983)

[Use of the EMF in patients after disturbance of cerebral circulation - Article in Russian]. Sov Med 5:35-38.

PMID: 6612459, UI: 83302409

Ozinkovskii VV (1980) [Use of a low-frequency pulsing EMF in treating inflammatory diseases of the ENT organs

[Article in Russian]. Zh Ushn Nos Gorl Bolezn May;3:51-53.

PMID: 7385978, UI: 80216160

hip avascular necrosis

Lluch BC, Garcia-Andrade DG, Munoz FL, Stern LL (1996)

 [Usefulness of EMFs in the treatment of hip avascular necrosis: a prospective study of 30 cases - Article in Spanish].

Rev Clin Esp Feb;196(2):67-74. Servicio de Cirugia Ortopedica y Traumatologia, Hospital Universitario San Carlos, Madrid.

A series is here reported of 30 hips from 21 patients with the diagnosis of avascular necrosis in different stages (Ficat 0=1, I=4, II=13, III=10, IV=2). Patients underwent external electro-stimulation by means of a EMF generator, and results were evaluated by NMR at 3-mo intervals. Lesions were categorized by NMR: < 25%, 25%-50%, and > 50% of involved head volume. The grading of lesions yielded the following distribution: grade 1=12, grade 2=10, and grade 3=7. Results were categorized in "clinical success", "NMR success" and "combined success" when symptoms decreased or disappeared, the lesion stabilized by NMR, or both, respectively.

Overall, the corresponding figures were 80%, 76.6%, and 63.3%, and were remarkably influenced by the NMR grading of the lesion.

PMID: 8685491, UI: 96286249

Steinberg GG (1995) Reversible osteolysis. J Arthroplasty Aug;10(4):556-559.

Dept of Orthopedics and Physical Rehabilitation, Univ of Massachusetts Med Ctr, Worcester 01655, USA.

This is a case report of a 44-yr-old patient in whom osteolytic changes that developed around the distal end of the femoral prosthesis seemed to reverse with the use of antiinflammatory medication and PEMF stimulation. Most reported cases of osteolysis have been described as showing progressive change at a variable rate.

 There has not been any previously documented case in which there has been reversal of osteolytic change.

PMID: 8523021, UI: 96052061

Mooney V (1990)

A randomized double-blind prospective study of the efficacy of pulsed EMFs for interbody lumbar fusions.

Spine Jul;15(7):708-712. Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Univ of California, Irvine.

A randomized double-blind prospective study of PEMFs for lumbar interbody fusions was performed on 195 subjects.

There were 98 subjects in the active group and 97 subjects in the placebo group. A brace containing equipment to induce an EMF was applied to patients undergoing interbody fusion in the active group, and a sham brace was used in the control group. In the active group there was a 92% success rate, while the control group had a 65% success rate (p>.005). The data showed the effectiveness of bone graft stimulation with the device. Publication Types: Clinical trial. Randomized controlled trial PMID: 2218718, UI: 91019677

(while the applied magnetic field is constant, and is not produced by a PEMF device, this study looks interesting, so we include it in this section)

Reut NI (1990)

[Manual and magneto-barotherapy of spinal osteochondrosis - Article in Russian].

Ortop Travmatol Protez Aug;8:29-31.

The problem of the spinal osteochondrosis treatment has not been solved yet. Commonly applicable manual therapy is not always effective. In order to liquidate complex degenerative hypoxic processes in soft tissues of spine, cervical, thoracal and lumbar parts of spine of 468 patients aged from 20-80 yr, in line with the manual therapy, have been exposed to hyperbaric oxygenation with constant magnetic field. In case of persistent pathologic process in spine a single kenalog-novocaine blockade after Shneck was additionally applied.

Prolonged good and excellent results were achieved with all patients during 3 yr. Mean term of invalidity was 7 d. Proposed method of spinal osteochondrosis treatment in polyclinic facilitates the economic situation of hospitals and saves patients from hospital bed.

PMID: 2074955, UI: 91163939

Heermeier K, Spanner M, Trager J, Gradinger R, Strauss PG, Kraus W, Schmidt J (1998)

Effects of extremely low frequency EMF on collagen type I mRNA expression and extracellular matrix synthesis of human osteoblastic cells.

Bioelectromagnetics 19(4):222-231.

Institut fur Molekulare Virologie, GSF-Forschungszentrum fur Umwelt und Gesundheit, Neuherberg, Germany.

Human osteoblastic cells were grown in a 3-D cell culture model and used to test the effects of a 20 Hz sinusoidal EMF (6 mT and 113 mV/cm max) on collagen type I mRNA expression and extracellular matrix formation in comparison with the effects of growth factors.

The cells were isolated from trabecular bone of a healthy individual (HO-197) and from a patient presenting with myositis ossificans (MO-192) and grown in a collagenous sponge-like substrate. Maximal enhancement of collagen type I expression after EMF treatment was 3.7-fold in HO-197 cells and 5.4-fold in MO-192 cells. Similar enhancement was found after transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) treatment. Combined treatment of the cells with EMF and the two growth factors TGF-beta and IGF-I did not act synergistically. MO-192 cells produced an osteoblast-characteristic extracellular matrix containing collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin, together with collagen type III, TP-1, and TP-3, two epitopes of an osteoblastic differentiation marker. The effects of EMFs on osteoblastic differentiation were comparable to those of TGF-beta and IGF-I.

EMF effects in the treatment of skeletal disorders and in orthopedic adjuvant therapy were mediated via enhancement of collagen type I mRNA expression, which may lead to extensive extracellular matrix synthesis.

PMID: 9581965, UI: 98241121

Serbiuk VV (1978)

[Magnetic field in the complex therapy of the knee joint injuries complicated by purulent infection - Article in Russian].

Ortop Travmatol Protez Nov;11:44-47. PMID: 733209, UI: 79094877

Impulse magnetic-field therapy for insomnia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Pelka RB, Jaenicke C, Gruenwald J.

Universitat der Bundeswehr Munchen Neubiberg/Munich, Germany.

 Adv Ther 2001 Jul-Aug;18(4):174-80

This 4-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy of impulse magnetic-field therapy for insomnia. One hundred one patients were randomly assigned to either active treatment (n = 50) or placebo (n = 51) and allocated to one of three diagnostic groups: (1) sleep latency; (2) interrupted sleep; or (3) nightmares. Efficacy endpoints were intensity of sleep latency, frequency of interruptions, sleepiness after rising, daytime sleepiness, difficulty with concentration, and daytime headaches. In the active-treatment group, the values of all criteria were significantly lower at study end (P < .00001). The placebo group also showed significant symptomatic improvement (P < .05), but the differences between groups were highly significant (P < .00001). Seventy percent (n = 34) of the patients given active treatment experienced substantial or even complete relief of their complaints; 24% (n = 12) reported clear improvement; 6% (n = 3) noted a slight improvement. Only one placebo patient (2%) had very clear relief; 49% (n = 23) reported slight or clear improvement; and 49% (n = 23) saw no change in their symptoms. No adverse effects of treatment were reported.

Publication Types: Clinical Trial Randomized Controlled Trial PMID: 11697020 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

[Pulsed magnetic fields. Observations in 353 patients suffering from chronic pain] [Article in Italian]

Di Massa A, Misuriello I, Olivieri MC, Rigato M.

Minerva Anestesiol 1989 Jul-Aug;55(7-8):295-9

Three hundred-fifty-three patients with chronic pain have been treated with pulsed electromagnetic fields.

In this work the Authors show the result obtained in the unsteady follow-up (2-60 months).

The eventual progressive reduction of benefits is valued by Spearman's test. We noted the better results in the group of patients with post-herpetic pain (deafferentation) and in patients simultaneously suffering from neck and low back pain.

PMID: 2622541 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]