Specific Medical PEMF Applications
ARTICLES INDICATING more
medical studies (A to m)
R. Sandyk, "Alzheimer's Disease: Improvement of Visual Memory and Visuoconstructive Performance Treatment with Picotesla Range Magnetic Fields," International Journal of Neurosci, 76(3-4),June 1994, p. 185-225.
On this review, after applying external electromagnetic fields ranging 5 to 8 Hz, large improvements were detected in Alzheimer's patients. These included improved visual memory, drawing performance, spatial orientation, mood, short-term memory and social interactions.
R. Sandyk, et al., "Age-related Disruption of Circadian Rhythms: Possible Relationship to Memory Impairment and Implications for Therapy with Magnetic Fields," International Journal of Neurosci, 59(4),August 1991, p. 259-262.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's Disease)
A. Bellosi & R. Berget, "Pulsed Magnetic Fields: A Glimmer of Hope for Patients Suffering from Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis,"
Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.
A study of three patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis were treated with a pulsed magnetic field, given three times a week for approximately 75 sessions to achieve maximum benefits, all three experienced beneficial effects.
A.A. Pilla & L. Kloth, "Effect of Pulsed Radio Frequency Therapy on Edema in Ankle Sprains: A Multisite Double-Blind Clinical Study," Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy, p. 300.
E.A. Shlyapok, et al., "Use of Alternating Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields in Combination with Radon Baths for Treatment of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis," Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, 4,1992, p. 13-17.
This study on 7 to 14 year old juveniles suffering from rheumatoid arthritis examined effects of low-frequency magnetic fields.
Blepharitis (infection of the eyelid)
V.A. Machekhin, et al., "A New Method for Treating Chronic Blepharitis Using Magnetic Compounds and an Alternating Magnetic Field," Vestn Oftalmol, 109(4), July-September 1993, p. 16-18.
Synder M, Zwierzchowski H, Zielinki KW (1984)
[Experimental studies of bone fracture healing in a pulsating magnetic field - Article in German].
Beitr Orthop Traumatol Jan;31(1):1-7. PMID: 6712575, UI: 84178248
O. Wahlstrom, ;Electromagnetic Fields Used in the Treatment of Fresh Fractures of the Radius,t;
Bioelectrical Repair and Growth Society, Second Annual Meeting,20-22 September 1982, Oxford, UK, . 26.
fractures of the tibia, femur, and humerus
M. Marcer, et al., "Results of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMFs) in Ununited Fractures after External Skeletal Fixation,t;
Clin Orthop, (190),November 1984, . 260-265
O. Wahlstrom, Stimulation of Fracture Healing with Electromagnetic Fields of Extremely Low Frequency (EMF of ELF),
Clinical Orthopedics & Related Research, (186),June 1984, . 293-301.
This study examined the effects of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields (1-1000 Hz, 4 gauss) on new bone fractures of female patients. Results led the authors to suggest that EMF treatment accelerates the early stages of fracture healing.
femoral neck fracture
Walenczak K, Widawski T (1993)
[A case of stress fracture of the femoral neck - Article in Polish].
Chir Narzadow Ruchu Ortop Pol 58(6):471-473. oddzialu Urazowo-Ortopedycznego Szpitala MSW W Lodzi.
A case of 28 yr old male with stress fracture of the femoral neck is presented. Heterogeneous clinical picture is blamed for diagnostic problems in the initial stage of the disease. Bone scintigraphy aids in the early diagnosis.
The use of low frequency EMF definitely shortened the treatment time in the case reported.
PMID: 7555308, UI: 96012786
Kraus W (1984)
[Magnetic field therapy and magnetically induced electrostimulation in orthopedics - Article in German].
Orthopade Apr;13(2):78-92. PMID: 6203080, UI: 84220956
Wahlstrom O (1984)
Stimulation of fracture healing with EMFs of extremely low frequency (EMF of ELF).
Clin Orthop Jun;186:293-301.
This randomized, controlled study was performed to evaluate how EMFs affect the accumulation of 99mTechnetium - methylendiphosphonate (Tc-MDP) in fresh fractures.
30 women with Colles' fractures, aged 50-70 yr, participated in this study: some in a control group and some in a treated group. After reduction, all patients were immobilized for 4 wk. After randomization, 15 patients were treated by EMFs of extremely low frequency (EMF of ELF), which were generated by a coil and a battery-powered portable current generator during the time of immobilization. The frequency of the alternating magnetic field was 1-1000 Hz; the magnitude was 4 Gauss [RMS (root-mean-square) value]. The scintigrams were performed 1, 2, 4, and 8 wk after the injury. The activity ratio in the fracture area was significantly higher at the examination of 1 and 2 wk (p<.05, p<.01) in the treated group than it was in the control group.
The clinical relevance of the results is not known, but one interpretation of the data is that the stimulation with EMF of ELF improves (accelerates) the early phase of fracture healing. The data warrant further investigation of fresh fracture treatment with this method.
PMID: 6233054, UI: 84206316
Bone non-union, delayed union, malunion.
Bassett CA, Mitchell SN, Gaston SR (1982)
Pulsing EMF treatment in ununited fractures and failed arthrodeses.
JAMA Feb 5;247(5):623-628.
PEMFs induce weak electric currents in bone by external coils on casts or skin. In November 1979, the FDA approved this surgically noninvasive, outpatient method. It produced confirmed end results in 1007 ununited fractures and 71 failed arthrodeses, worldwide. Overall success was 81% at Columbia-Presbyterian Med Ctr, 79% internationally and 76% in other patients in the USA. PEMF therapy was effective in 75% of 332 patients (a subset) with an average 4.7-yr disability duration, an average of 3.4 previous operative failures to produce union, and a 35% rate of infection. 84% of carpal naviculars and 82% of femoral neck-trochanteric non-unions were united.
After attempted arthrodeses could not salvage a failed total-knee prosthesis, PEMFs promoted healing in 85% of patients.
When coils were unsuccessful alone, combining them with surgical repair was effective.
PMID: 7054564, UI: 82101246
Bassett CA, Schink-Ascani M (1991)
Long-term pulsed EMF (PEMF) results in congenital pseudarthrosis.
Calcif Tissue Int Sep;49(3):216-220.
Bioelectric Research Ctr, Riverdale, New York 10463.
91 patients with congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia were treated with PEMFs since 1973; 87 were followed to puberty.
Lesions were stratified by roentgenographic appearance. Type I and type II had gaps less <5 mm in width. Type III were atrophic, spindled, and had gaps in excess of 5 mm. Overall success in type I and II lesions was 43/60 (72%). Of those 28 patients seen before operative repair had been attempted, 7/8 type I lesions healed (88%), whereas 16/20 type II lesions healed (80%) on PEMFs and immobilization alone. Only 19% (6/31) type III lesions united, only one of which did not require surgery. 16/91 limbs (18%) were ultimately amputed, most before treatment principles were fully defined in 1980. 14 of these 16 patients (88%) had type III lesions. Refracture occurred in 22 patients, most as the result of significant trauma, in the absence of external brace support. 12/19 refractures, retreated with PEMFs and casts, healed on this regime.
Episodic use of PEMFs proved effective in controlling stress fractures in several patients until they reached puberty.
PEMFs, which are associated with no known risk, seem to be an effective, conservative adjunct in the management of this therapeutically challenging, congenital lesions.
PMID: 1933587, UI: 92034339
union delayed ( preventive effects)
A.W. Dunn ; G.A. Rush, 3d, ;Electrical Stimulation in Treatment of Delayed Union and Nonunion of Fractures and Osteotomies,;
Southern Medical Journal,77(12),December 1984, . 1530-1534.
This study examined the preventive effects of low-frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields against delayed union in rat fibular osteotomies and diaphyseal tibia fractures in humans.
Cakirgil GS, Saplakoglu A, Yazar T (1989) The compared effect of a four-coiled system in pulsed EMF stimulation.
Orthopedics Nov;12(11):1481-1484. Dept of Orthopedics, Univ of Ankara, Yenisehir, Turkey.
A clinical trial evaluated the effects of a pulsed magnetic field on pseudoarthroses of in cases.
19/21 cases had successful results; the remaining 2 failed to respond. 2-coiled and 4-coiled systems were used in this study.
The 4-coiled system was more effective in spite of its practical disadvantages and larger size.
Publication Types: Clinical trial PMID: 2685789, UI: 90068246
Sedel L, Christel P, Duriez J, Duriez R, Evrard J, Ficat C, Cauchoix J, Witvoet J (1981)
[Acceleration of repair of non-unions by EMFs - Article in French]. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot 67(1):11-23.
This work deals with the results obtained by 4 French orthopaedic departments using A. Bassett's method of EMF stimulation for non-union treatment. 37 cases were studied. The results are known for 35, of which 29 were successes and 6 were failures. The failures were explained for 4 of them by a bad application of the device. For the 29 successful cases, the role of the stimulation is discussed. Discarding those who have been treated a short time after a surgical procedure, those who have been immobilized >6 mo and those where the non-union could have been a delayed union, it remains 14 successful cases apparently undisputable. For them the role of the EMF stimulation seems real.
PMID: 6453392, UI: 81200370
Sedel L, Christel P, Duriez J, Duriez R, Evrard J, Ficat C, Cauchoix J, Witvoet J (1982)
Results of non-unions treatment by pulsed EMF stimulation.
Acta Orthop Scand Suppl 196:81-91. PMID: 6950654, UI: 82156081
F. Rajewski & W. Marciniak, "Use of Magnetotherapy for Treatment of Bone Malunion in Limb Lengthening.
Preliminary Report,t; Chir Narzadow Ruchu Ortop Pol, 57(1-3),1992,. 247-249.
This article discusses the cases of two children with bone malunion following lengthening of congenitally shortened lower legs.
Pulsed sinusoidal magnetic field treatment was beneficial for both patients.
R.B. Simonis, et al., "The Treatment of Non-union Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Combined with a Denham External Fixator,
Injury, 15(4),January 1984, . 255-260.
Results of this study showed that 13 of 15 cases of long-bone nonunion treated with pulsed electromagnetic fields in combination with Denham external fixator united within several months.
L. Sedel, et al., ;Acceleration of Repair of Non-unions electromagnetic Fields,
Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot,67(1), 1981, . 11-23.
Results of this study found electromagnetic field stimulation to be an effective treatment for nonunion among a group of 37 French
nonunions (unresponsive to surgery)
J.C. Mulier & F. Spaas, "Out-patient Treatment of Surgically Resistant Non-unions Induced Pulsing Current -
Clinical Results,t; Arch Orthop Trauma Surg, 97(4), 1980,.293-297.
Results of this study found treatment induced pulsing to be beneficial in patients suffering from nonunions unresponsive to surgery.
A.A. Goldberg, ;Computer Analysis of Data on More than 11,000 Cases of Ununited Fracture Submitted for Treatment with Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields," Bioelectrical Repair and Growth Society, Second Annual Meeting,20-22 September 1982, Oxford, UK, . 61.
This 7-year study examined data on more than 11,000 cases of nonunions treated with pulsed electromagnetic fields for up to 10 to 12 hours per day. Results indicated an overall success rate of 75 percent.
Delayed Unions / Acquired Pseudo-Arthrosis
Cadossi, R. et al., "Low Frequency Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields in the Treatment of Delayed Unions and Acquired Pseudo-Arthrosis", Abstract, 2nd Annual BRAGS, Oxford, U.K. Sep. 20-22, 1982.
Non-Unions / Pseudarthroses (Surgically-Resistant)
Bassett, C. A. L. et al.;
"A Non-Operative Salvage of Surgically-Resistant Pseudarthroses and Non-Unions by Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields: A Preliminary Report";
Clin. Orthoped. and Rel. Research; No. 124; pp. 128 to 143, (May 1977).
Nahoda J, Koudela K, Freyova J (1984)
[Healing pseudarthroses of the long bones using a pulsating EMF - Article in Czech].
Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech Apr;51(2):138-144. PMID: 6720212, UI: 84198909
O'Connor BT (1984)
Pulsed magnetic field therapy for tibial non-union.
Lancet Jul 21;2(8395):171-172.
Rettig AC, Shelbourne KD, McCarroll JR, Bisesi M, Watts J (1988)
The natural history and treatment of delayed union stress fractures of the anterior cortex of the tibia.
Am J Sports Med May;16(3):250-255. Thomas A. Brady Sports Med Ctr, Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, Indiana.
This study presents 8 patients with stress fracture of the anterolateral cortex of the midshaft of the tibia.
All of the patients, ranging in age from 14-23 yr, were competitive basketball players who experienced pain while running or jumping for an average of 4.4 mo before the diagnosis was made. 8 patients were treated with rest and/or PEMF therapy. Although one of the patients required bone grafting procedure, all 8 of these patients showed complete healing and were able to return to full activity after an average of 8.7 mo of treatment. They have remained asymptomatic for an average of 14.7 mo. The overall time from initial symptoms to return to competition averaged 12.5 mo in this group of athletes. Rest and PEMF therapy may result in healing in some patients with delayed union stress fractures of the anterolateral cortex of the midshaft of the tibia. Although this injury is associated with a prolonged healing period, 7/8 patients with adequate followup in our study were able to return to competition without complications after treatment.
One patient was asymptomatic for 33 mo before experiencing a reinjury.
Diagnosis of stress fracture should be a primary consideration in basketball players with a prolonged history of pain on the anterolateral aspect of the midthird of the tibia.
Once the diagnosis is made we recommend initial treatment consist of rest and external electrical stimulation for a minimum time of 3-6 mo before considering surgical intervention.
PMID: 3381982, UI: 88250514
Barker AT, Dixon RA, Sharrard WJ, Sutcliffe ML (1984)
Pulsed magnetic field therapy for tibial non-union: Interim results of a double-blind trial.
Lancet May 5;1(8384):994-996.
Patients with tibial fractures which had remained ununited for at least 52 wk were randomly allocated to either active or dummy pulsed magnetic field stimulators and treated in full leg plasters for 24 wk with a non-weightbearing conservative regimen, as is usual with such techniques. Fractures in 5/9 patients with working machines united and fractures in 5/7 patients with dummy machines also united. These early results of this double-blind trial are compatible with a difference in success rate at 24 wk on active treatment of +33% to -61% (95% confidence limits) compared with the success rate on the dummy stimulators. The high proportion of fractures uniting in the control group suggests that conservative management of non-union is effective and this may explain much of the success attributed to pulsed magnetic field therapy. Publication Types: Clinical trial Randomized controlled trial PMID: 6143970, UI: 84190306
Heckman JD, Ingram AJ, Loyd RD, Luck JV Jr, Mayer PW (1981)
Non-union treatment with pulsed EMFs.
Clin Orthop Nov;161:58-66.
Noninvasive, PEMF treatment, when properly employed, was effective in securing healing of ununited fractures in 64.4% of 149 patients. The effectiveness of this modality can be ascertained after 3 mo of intensive use in >85% of patients, thus enabling the clinician to decide to terminate treatment, continue electrostimulation, or abandon it in favor of another treatment modality. The success of treatment is dependent upon certain variables. Anatomic location of the non-union is important. Higher healing rates were noted in the tibia than in the femur or humerus. In some conditions, combined electrostimulation and bone grafting was more effective than either measure alone. Young patients healed more rapidly than older patients. Electrostimulation is more effective when instituted within 2 yr of the original fracture than when started at longer intervals after the injury. Infection, either quiescent or actively draining, does not seem to affect the overall results. Of greatest importance is patient adherence to the treatment protocol as outlined, with emphasis placed on adequate immobilization of the fracture and absolute nonweight-bearing during treatment. Considering these factors and in light of the very rare frequency of short-term side effects, the use of PEMFs seems to be a reasonable choice of treatment in the management of ununited fractures.
PMID: 6975692, UI: 82071043
Hinsenkamp M, Ryaby J, Burny F (1985) Treatment of non-union by pulsing EMF: European multicenter study of 308 cases.
Reconstr Surg Traumatol 19:147-151. Publication Types: Clinical trial PMID: 3887518, UI: 85191823
Madronero A, Pitillas I, Manso FJ (1988) Pulsed EMF treatment failure in radius non-united fracture healing.
J Biomed Eng Oct;10(5):463-466. CENIM, Madrid, Spain.
PEMF treatment is a non-invasive technique which has wide use in promoting healing of delayed union and non-union of bone.
According to reports in the literature, PEMF has a 'success' of about 70%, but with no clear-cut reason to explain the failures. Our tests were carried out on 11 patients with radius non-unions and delayed unions. PEMF failure is associated with implanted metallic plates. In our view, this can be explained because the conducting plates create a uniform bone biopotential around the fracture and thus prevent the negative polarization which stimulates callus formation. Although further controlled and randomized clinical tests are needed, our data show that removal of the plates may be needed before PEMF application.
PMID: 3266277, UI: 89179988
J.S. Kort, et al., Congenital Pseudoarthrosis of the Tibia: Treatment with Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields,
Clin Orthop, (165), May 1982, p. 124-137.
In this study, 92 congenital pseudoarthrosis patients received treatment with pulsing electromagnetic fields.
Grabski RS, Czopek A, Grabski SJ (1988)
[Treatment of selected injuries of the knee joint by a high-frequency impulse magnetic field - Article in Polish].
Chir Narzadow Ruchu Ortop Pol 53(1):18-22.
PMID: 3409766, UI: 88311988
nonunited scaphoid fractures
von Satzger G, Herbst E (1981)
Surgical and electrical methods in the treatment of congenital and posttraumatic pseudarthrosis of the tibia.
Clin Orthop Nov;161:82-104.
This is a report of 2 adult patients with posttraumatic and 7 children with congenital pseudarthroses treated by surgical and electrical methods. Interest was focused primarily on congenital pseudarthroses because of the unquestionable severity of these cases and consequently a very high benefit/risk ratio. Three procedures were used: external (Hoffmann) fixation combined with monophasic or biphasic pulsed current stimulation; internal (transtarsal) fixation combined with PEMF stimulation; and surgical treatment only, as above, without electrostimulation. Healing was achieved in both treated cases of posttraumatic pseudarthrosis and in 9/14 instances in cases of congenital pseudarthrosis stimulated electrically, as well as in 2 instances with no electrostimulation. In 7 instances, the bone remained healed for 9 mo or more, the longest period being almost 5.5 yr.
Both pulsed current and PEMF stimulation seem to enhance the process of bone healing.
However, comparison between the different stimulation methods cannot be made on the basis of the limited material presented here, and the need for more basic studies still exists.
Concerning the surgical treatment, it seems that transtarsal fixation is a better choice for congenital pseudarthrosis than fixation with an AO-plate, Rush pin or Hoffmann apparatus.
PMID: 6975693, UI: 82071047
Delayed Union / Nonunion of the Tibia
M.W. Meskens, et al.,
"Treatment of Delayed Union and Nonunion of the Tibia Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields. A Retrospective Follow-up,"
Bull Hosp Jt Dis Orthop Inst, 48(2), Fall 1988, p. 170-175.
Wiendl HJ, Strigl M (1978)
[Clinical experiences in supplementary treatment of pseudarthroses using electromagnetic potentials - Article in German].
Fortschr Med Feb 2;96(5):231-236.
Kraus-Lechner electromagnetic alternating field therapy was performed postoperatively in addition to osteosynthesis in 22 cases of pseudarthrosis after fractures of the limbs, 5 osteotomies and one fresh fracture of the lower leg. Except for one failure, all cases showed a complete and clearly accelerated osseous bridging. This method gave added success especially in preoperated and problem-cases such as pseudarthrosis of the femoral neck and defect-pseudarthrosis with tibial inflammation.
PMID: 304436, UI: 78085891
Lechner F, Oeller G, Ascherl R (1979)
[Treatment of infected pseudoarthroses with electrodynamic field therapy - Article in German]
. Fortschr Med May 24;97(20):943-949.
They described the method and fundamentals of electrodynamic field therapy of infected, atrophic pseudarthrosis. Transplantation of autologous spongious bone is of special importance, in addition to the common principles of treatment. The bone graft reestablishes normal electrical conduction within the pseudarthrosis and consolidates the defect as a reactive receptor for the applied AC-potentials. Using this method, we treated 271 patients, suffering from pseudarthroses over an 8-yr period; 91 of them had an infected, often atrophic pseudarthrosis. Bony healing was achieved in 92% of the cases in each group.
PMID: 376415, UI: 79192707
Fox IM, Smith SD (1983) Bioelectric repair of metatarsal non-unions. J Foot Surg 22(2):108-115.
An exciting new development in the field of bone physiology has been the discovery of electrical potentials in stressed bone and the relation of this knowledge to Wolff's law. The application of these discoveries for the treatment of non-unions by exogenous bioelectric potentials via direct current and PEMFs has been a major development in orthopedic surgery. To date, the literature reports the use of this new treatment modality in the large long bones of the extremities. The authors have utilized these techniques to repair non-unions of the metatarsals and, in the process, have adapted some of the principles for the small bones of the foot. PMID: 6602827, UI: 83239598
Tabrah F, Hoffmeier M, Gilbert F Jr, Batkin S, Bassett CA (1990)
Bone density changes in osteoporosis-prone women exposed to pulsed EMFs (PEMFs).
J Bone Miner Res May;5(5):437-442. Univ of Hawaii School of Med, Straub Clinic and Hospital, Honolulu.
To determine the effect of a 72 Hz PEMF on bone density of the radii of osteoporosis-prone women, the nondominant forearms of 20 subjects were exposed to PEMF 10 h daily for a period of 12 wk. Bone density before, during, and after the exposure period was determined by use of a Norland-Cameron bone mineral analyzer. Bone mineral densities of the treated radii measured by single-photon densitometry increased significantly in the immediate area of the field during the exposure period and decreased during the following 36 wk. A similar but weaker response occurred in the opposite arm, suggesting a "cross-talk" effect on the untreated radii, from either possible arm proximity during sleep or very weak general field effects.
Properly applied PEMFs, if scaled for whole-body use, may have clinical application in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Publication Types: Clinical trial PMID: 2195843, UI: 90313511
V.M. Iurlov, et al.,;The Efficacy of the Use of Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in Chronic Bronchitis,
Voen Med Zh, 3, 1989, . 35-36.
Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that both low-frequency electromagnetic field treatment and treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields proved effective in patients suffering from chronic bronchitis when coupled with standard drug therapies. Magnetic field treatment consisted of a total of 15 15-20-minute daily exposures.
N.G. Bakhmutskii, et al., ;The Assessment of the Efficacy of the Effect of a Rotational Magnetic Field on the Course of the Tumor Process in Patients with Generalized Breast Cancer,t;
Sov Med, (7), 1991, . 25-27.
This study examined the effects of a rotational magnetic field on a group of 51 breast cancer patients.
Results showed a significant positive response in 27 of them.
cancer (Walker's carcinoma)
N.G. Bakhmutskii, et al., The Growth Dynamics of Walker Carcinosarcoma During Exposure to a Magnetic Eddy Field,;
Vopr Onkol,37(6), 1991, . 705-708.
Results of this study indicated that exposure to a rotational magnetic field inhibited Walker's carcinoma tumor growth as much as 90 percent in some cases.
antitumor agents (into cells incorporation of)
Y. Omote, "An Experimental Attempt to Potentiate Therapeutic Effects of Combined Use of Pulsing Magnetic Fields and Antitumor Agents," Nippon Geka Gakkai Zasshi, 89(8),August 1988, . 1155-1166.
Results of this study indicated that pulsed magnetic field stimulation increased the incorporation of antitumor agents into cells, and thus increased antitumor activity shifting the cell cycle to a proliferative from a nonproliferative phase.
cancer (different forms of)
V.A. Lubennikov, et al., "First Experience in Using a Whole-Body Magnetic Field Exposure in Treating Cancer Patients,"
Vopr Onkol, 41(2), 1995, . 140-141.
This study examined the effects of whole body magnetic fields (16.5-35 G, 50-165 Hz) on patients suffering from different forms of cancer. Treatment consisted of 15 cycles, each 1-20 minutes in duration, and was coupled with more traditional cancer therapies. Results showed that the magnetotherapy had overall beneficial effects, particularly with respect to improved immune status and postoperative recovery.
L.S. Ogorodnikova, et al., "Morphological Criteria of Lung Cancer Regression Under the Effect of Magnetotherapy,"
Vopr Onkol, 26(1),1980, . 28-34.
U. Randoll & R.M. Pangan, "The Role of Complex Biophysical-Chemical Therapies for Cancer,"
Bioelectrochem Bioenerg, 27(3), 1992, . 341-346.
Results of this study proved that the combination of weak pulsed electromagnetic fields with antioxidant supplementation is beneficial in the treatment of patients suffering from tongue cancer, improving speech, pain control, and tolerance to chemotherapy.
Cancer (varius malignancies)
V. Smirnova, "Anti-Tumorigenic Action of an Eddy Magnetic Field,"Vrach, 2, 1994, . 25-26
Results of this Russian study indicated that the use of whole body eddy magnetic fields, coupled with more conventional cancer therapies (including magnetotherapy) is effective in the treatment of patients suffering from a variety of different malignancies.
N.G. Bakhmutskii, et al., "A Case of Successful Treatment of a Patient with Breast Cancer Using a Rotating Electromagnetic Field,"
Soviet Medicine, 8, 1991, . 86-87.
This article reports on the case of a 48-year-old-woman with breast cancer who was treated successfully with magnetotherapy.
Infiltration showed a marked decrease following 30 whole body exposures to an eddy magnetic field for 60 minutes.
One metastatic node disappeared while the size of others was reduced following 60 such exposures. A total regression of tumor and metastases was seen following the completion of a course of 110 exposures.
Synergistic effect between magnetic fields and commonly used chemotherapeutic agents
Hannan CJ, Liang Y, Allison JD and Searle JR
In vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines during pulsed magnetic field exposure.
Anticancer Research 14(4A); 1517-20. 1994.
Liang Y, Hannan CJ, Chang BK and Shoenlein PV;
Enhanced Potency of Daunorubicin against multidrug resistant subline KB-ChR-8-5-11 by a pulsed magnetic field.
Anticancer Research 17(3c) ; 2083-88, 1997
massive bone graft
Capanna R, Donati D, Masetti C, Manfrini M, Panozzo A, Cadossi R, Campanacci M (1994)
Effect of EMFs on patients undergoing massive bone graft following bone tumor resection: A double blind study.
Clin Orthop Sep;306:213-221. Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Clinica Ortopedica I, Universita di Bologna, Italy.
Massive bone allograft after tumor resection has been used for >20 yr.
Many factors negatively influence the healing of the junction between the allograft and the host bone, resulting in a low healing rate and lengthy time to union. This study evaluated whether PEMF stimulation could be advantageously used in these patients.
A double blind prospective randomized study was designed. 83 host graft junctions in 47 patients were considered.
The overall host graft junction healing rate was the same (67%) in both control and active stimulated patients.
Although not statistically significant, a positive effect of PEMFs was seen for those host graft junctions with a cortico-cortical contact between allograft and host bone.
When adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy was not used, a definite effect of PEMF stimulation was seen: the healing time decreased from 9.4 mo in the control group to 6.7 mo in the active stimulated group (p<.001). This effect would have been lost if chemotherapy was employed. There was also no advantage in supplement with iliac crest autografts at the host graft junction site if chemotherapy was used. Factors that significantly influenced the host graft junction healing rate were: chemotherapy; type of allograft host bone contact; quality of host graft junction; and, in intercalary allografts, use of the osteosynthesis device. No difference was noted between control and active groups for patient survival or number of local or distal tumor recurrences.
Publication Types: Clinical trial Randomized controlled trial PMID: 8070199, UI: 94349691
L.C. Rhodes, "The Adjunctive Utilization of Diapulse Therapy Pulsed High Peak Power Electromagnetic Energy) in Accelerating Tissue Healing in Oral Surgery," Q National Dental Association, 40(1),1981, . 4-11
This controlled study examined the effects of adjunctive electromagnetic therapy on oral surgery recovery. Patients received the therapy once per day beginning between 3 to 5 days prior to oral surgery. Therapy was maintained until the point of hospital release. Results found the therapy produced significant healing relative to controls, who received conventional treatment only.
V. Hillier-Kolarov & N. Pekaric-Nadj, "PEMF Therapy as an Additional Therapy for Oral diseases
,"European Bioelectromagnetics Association, 1st Congress,23-25 January 1992, Brussels, Belgium.
This study found that patients suffering from various oral diseases experienced more rapid healing when treated with both conventional therapies and 30 minutes per day of pulsed electromagnetic fields (5 mT, 30 Hz), as opposed to conventional therapies alone.
Chelidze LN, Zhgenti TG, Devdariani ES, Nishnianidze KA, Khomeriki RV (1980)
Todorov N, Ignatova B, Stojanova O (1983) [Application of low-frequency impulse magnetic field and Phytodont in the treatment of patients with hemorrhagic periodontosis - Article in Bulgarian].
Stomatologiia (Sofiia) Nov;65(6):20-24. PMID: 6334380, UI: 85066632
Conca, et al., "Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Novel Antidepressive Strategy?" Neuropsychobiology, 34(4),1996, . 204-207.
Results of this study led researchers to conclude that patients suffering from major depression experienced a significant reduction of depressive symptoms following treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation coupled with standard medication relative to patients taking the medicine. This was true after just three TMS treatments.
Diabetes (purulent wounds)
R.A. Kuliev & R.F. Babaev, "A Magnetic Field in the Combined Treatment of Suppurative Wounds in Diabetes Mellitus,
" Vestn Khir Im I I Grek, 148(1),January 1992, . 33-36.
This study involving 72 diabetics with purulent wounds found that magnetic fields aided healing significantly.\
vascular complications (diabetics)
Kirillov IB, Suchkova ZV, Lastushkin AV, Sigaev AA, Nekhaeva TI (1996)
[Magentotherapy in the comprehensive treatment of vascular complications of diabetes mellitus -
[Article in Russian]. Klin Med (Mosk) 74(5):39-41. 3
20 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients were exposed to impulsed magnetic field, 100 control DM patients received conservative therapy alone. 270 patients had microangiopathy, macroangiopathy was diagnosed in 50 patients. Magnetotherapy in combination with conservative methods gave good and satisfactory results in 74% of patients versus 28% in control group. Metabolism stabilization resulted in some patients in reduced blood sugar. Use of magnetic field produced faster and longer response than conservative therapy.
PMID: 8999182, UI: 97062022
suppurative wounds (diabetics)
Kuliev RA, Babaev RF, Akhmedova LM, Ragimova AI (1992) [Treatment of suppurative wounds in patients with diabetes mellitus by magnetic field and laser irradiation - Article in Russian]. Khirurgiia (Mosk) Jul;7-8:30-33.
The efficacy of including a magnetic field, low-intensity laser beam, and their combination in the complex of therapeutic measures was studied in 119 patients with suppurative wounds and diabetes mellitus. With the use of magnetic field or laser beam intoxication diminished, the organism's immunological status was stabilized within a shorter time, the wound process followed a quicker course, and treatment took less time. The magnetic-laser effect has advantages over separate use of these factors. PMID: 1469868, UI: 93108702
Vesovic-Potic V, Conic S (1993) [Use of pulsating high-frequency EMFs in patients with diabetic neuropathies and angiopathies -
Article in Serbo-Croatian (Cyrillic)]. Srp Arh Celok Lek Aug;121(8-12):124-126. Belgrade Institute of Rehabilitation.
High-frequency PEMF therapy was carried out in 22 patients with diabetic polyneuropathy and angiopathy of the lower extremities (18 M, 4 F, aged 48.2+6.3 yr; 10 insulin-dependent persons, and 12 on oral antidiabetic treatment). The aim of the study was to verify the effect of this therapy on symptoms, neurophysiological findings and peripheral circulation. The diagnose of diabetic polyneuropathy was based on the electromyographic examination of foot and calf muscles, measurement of motor nerve conduction velocity of peroneal and tibial nerve, and sensory nerve conduction velocity of sural nerve. Diagnosis of diabetic polyneuropathy was based on EMG examination of the foot and calf muscles, measurement of the motor nerve conduction velocity of peroneal and tibial nerves, and the sensory nerve conduction velocity of the sural nerve. Diabetic angiopathy was diagnosed by oscillometric examination, measurement of skin temperature and claudication distance. The same methods were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of EMF. Therapy significantly improved the symptoms and all registered parameters of peripheral circulation, but neurophysiological parameters did not change significantly.
Therefore, high-frequency PEMF is recommended for the treatment of diabetic angiopathy.
It can be used as an initial therapy, or combined with physical agents which are commonly used in the treatment of patients with neuropathic changes in lesions of peripheral nerve. PMID: 7725151, UI: 95242150
Diseases of the Larynx
Sandyk R, Anninos PA (1992) Attenuation of epilepsy with application of external magnetic fields: a case report.
Int J Neurosci Sep;66(1-2):75-85. Democrition Univ of Thrace, Dept of Med Physics, Alexandroupolis, Greece.
We found earlier that magnetoencephalographic (MEG) brain measurements in patients with seizure disorders show significant MEG activity often in the absence of conventional EEG abnormalities. We localized foci of seizure activity using the mapping technique characterized by the ISO-Spectral Amplitude (ISO-SA) on the scalp distribution of specified spectral components or frequency bands of the emitted MEG Fourier power spectrum. Also, using an electronic device, we utilized the above recorded activity to emit back the same intensity and frequency of magnetic field to the presumed epileptic foci. Using this method we were able, over the past 2.5 yr, successfully to attenuate seizure activity in a cohort of over 150 patients with various forms of epilepsy. We present a patient with severe epilepsy and behavioral disturbances in whom application of an external artificial magnetic field of low intensity produced a substantial attenuation of seizure frequency which coincided with an improvement in the patient's behavior.
Artificial magnetic treatment may be a valuable adjunctive procedure in the management of epilepsy. PMID: 1304572, UI: 93279926
Mel'nikova MM, Kunitsyna GA, Toroptsev ND (1983)
[Use of a weak acoustic-frequency magnetic field in the complex treatment of diseases of the internal genital organs of women
[- Article in Russian]. Akush Ginekol (Mosk) Sep;9:55-57. Publication Types: Review PMID: 6359931, UI: 84077586
Varcaccio-Garofalo G, Carriero C, Loizzo MR, Amoruso S, Loizzi P (1995) Analgesic properties of EMF therapy in patients with chronic pelvic pain. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 22(4):350-354. Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology II Clinic, Univ of Bari, Italy.
In a prospective uncontrolled trial, 64 women with chronic refractory pelvic pain of at least 6 mo duration, resistant to standard therapies, had EMF therapy on both iliac regions by Thelf Systems apparatus. Therapy was twice/d for 2 h each for 20-40 d. Cases were reassessed after 3 mo. 39 cases (61%) had complete subsidence of pain; 15 patients (23%) had relief during treatment, then mild endopelvic tension at 3-mo; in 10 cases (16%) symptoms eased only during application hours, and were unchanged at follow-up. Treatment outcome was independent of pre-existent psychosocial variables. Magnetic therapy had a real analgesic effect on pelvic pain, and seemed to contribute to resolution of complex interactions between somatic nociceptive stimuli and psychosocial implications affecting pain perception in these patients. Publication Types: Clinical trial PMID: 8777794, UI: 96114165
Zaslavskii AOi, Markarov GS, Gelis IuS (1997) [Electromagnetic urological stimulator - Article in Russian].
Med Tekh May;3:42-43.
The paper deals with an EM urological stimulator which generates a modulated low-frequency EMF of nonthermal intensity and its brief technical data. It presents a treatment regimen for urolithiasis and recommendations how to use the above therapeutic agent to stimulate urinary function in patients with urolithiasis in order to inoperatively eliminate urinary calculi and sand which form after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. PMID: 9312646, UI: 97397893
Jorgensen WA, Frome BM, Wallach C (1994) Electrochemical therapy of pelvic pain: effects of pulsed EMFs (PEMF) on tissue trauma. Eur J Surg Suppl 574:83-86. International Pain Research Institute, Los Angeles, California.
Hart disease (Atherosclerosis, Parasystolic Arrhythmia, Stroke)
M.A. Dudchenko, et al., "The Effect of Combined Treatment with the Use of Magnetotherapy on the Systemic Hemodynamics of Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease and Spinal Osteochondrosis,"Lik Sprava, (5), May 1992, . 40-43.
Results of this study found that the addition of magnetotherapy to the treatment of patients suffering from ischemic heart disease and osteochondrosis led to clinical improvements.
Bogdanov NN, Akhmedzhanov MIu, Buiavykh AG (1986) [Optimization of the effects of physical and health resort factors in ischemic heart disease and arterial hypertension - Article in Russian]. Ter Arkh 58(5):108-111.
Natural and instrumental physical methods were discussed in the therapy, prevention and rehabilitation of 280 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and 300 patients with arterial hypertension (AH). In the CHD and AH patients, short- and long-term follow-up results showed the efficacy of optimized use of a number of physical factors (precardial and segmental massage, low frequency magnetic field). It is appropriate to expand the concept "nonpharmacological" methods in the control of CHD and AH. PMID: 3488602, UI: 86290113
Orlov LL, Makoeva LD, Glezer MG, Titov SIu, Arzhanenko OM, Margarian AG, Musev VA, Memetov KA, Belinskaia TF (1992) [Evaluation of antianginal effects of running pulse magnetic field and drug therapy on the physical working capacity and hemodynamics in patients with stable angina pectoris - Article in Russian]. Kardiologiia Feb;32(2):23-26.
The effects of the running pulse magnetic field, antianginal drug therapy and their combinations on the physical capacity were compared in 60 patients with Functional Classes I-III stable angina pectoris.
Orlov LL, Makoeva LD, Glezer MG, Memetov KA, Belinskaia TF, Arzhanenko OM (1991)
[Effects of impulse magnet field and beta adrenergic blockaders on physical work capacity and hemodynamics of patients with neurocirculatory dystonia of the cardiac type - Article in Russian].
Kardiologiia Feb;31(2):36-39. PMID: 2041288, UI: 91251499
E.M. Vasil'eva, et al., "The Effect of a Low-frequency Magnetic Field on Erythrocyte Membrane Function and on the Prostanoid Level in the Blood Plasma of Children with Parasystolic Arrhythmia,"
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (2),March-April 1994, . 18-20.
Results of this study involving 23 parasystolic children found that low-frequency magnetic field exposure improved humoral and cellular processes involved in the regulation of cardiac rhythm.
F.E. Gorbunov, The Effect of Combined Transcerebral Magnetic and Electric Impulse Therapy on the Cerebral and Central Hemodynamic Status of Stroke Patients in the Early Rehabilitation Period,
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (3), May-June 1996, p. 21-24.
Results of this study demonstrated that treatment with sinusoidal modulated currents coupled with Tran-cerebral magnetic fields proved more effective than either therapy on its own in the treatment of stroke patients during the period of early rehabilitation.
headaches (cervical and migraine)
J. Giczi & A. Guseo, "Treatment of Headache Pulsating Electromagnetic Field a Preliminary Report,
" Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium,May 16-17, 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 74-76.
Results of this study indicated that pulsating electromagnetic fields (12 Hz and 5 mT) were an effective prophylactic treatment for patients suffering from cervical and migraine headaches.
L. Lazar & A. Farago, "Experiences of Patients Suffering from Migraine-Type Headache Treated with Magnetotherapy,
" Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium, May 16-17, 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 137-140.
This placebo-controlled, double-blind study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (2-5 Hz and flux densities of 3-4 mT) on patients suffering from migraine headaches. PEMFs were administered to the head for 10-15 minutes per day over a period of 30 days. Results showed a mean improvement level of 66 percent in patients receiving the treatment, compared to just 23 percent among controls.
O. Grunner, et al., "Cerebral Use of a Pulsating Magnetic Field in Neuropsychiatry Patients with Long-term Headache," EEG EMG Z Elektroenzephalogr Verwandte Geb, 16(4), December 1985, p. 227-230
Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study demonstrated that the administration of a pulsed magnetic field for less than one hour to headache patients produced significant beneficial effects, as shown subjective patient reports, as well as EEG activity.
A. Prusinski, et al., "Pulsating Electromagnetic Field in the Therapy of Headache,
" Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium, May 16-17, 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 163-166.
This study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (20 minutes per day for 15 days) in the treatment of patients suffering from chronic headaches. Results indicated the treatment to be most effective in patients suffering from tension headaches, with 88 percent of such patients reporting positive results. Beneficial results were also experienced patients suffering from migraines (60 percent), cervical migraines (68 percent), and psychogenic headaches (60 percent).
A. Prusinksi, et al., "Pulsating Electromagnetic Field in the Therapy of Headache, " Journal of Bioelectr., 7(1), 1988, p. 127-128.
In this study, 90 headache patients were treated with pulsating electromagnetic fields via large coils to the body for 20 minutes per day for a total of 15 days. Results found the treatment to be either excellent or good for those patients suffering from migraine, tension, and/or cervical headaches. Patients experiencing post-traumatic or cluster headaches did not experience such benefits.
Grunner O (1985) [Cerebral use of a pulsating magnetic field in neuropsychiatry patients with long-term headache - Article in German].
EEG EMG Z Elektroenzephalogr Verwandte Geb Dec;16(4):227-230.
40 patients with headaches of various etiology were given pulsed magnetic field therapy (f=260 Hz; t=3 ms; induction B=1.9 mT; gradient=0.5 mT/cm). Each session lasted 0.5 h. Self-assessment statements and EEG changes were used to evaluate changes of headache intensity. EEG frequency analysis showed significant changes in % delta and alpha 1 activities (7.5-9.5/s) after use of the real treatment, as compared with sham treatment.
Improved self-assessment, and EEG were found in headaches associated with cerebral arteriosclerosis, sequels to cerebral concussion, depressive neurosis, or tension headache.
Pulsed magnetic field could be applied only where the EEG was physiological. PMID: 3935419, UI: 86081440
Mix E, Jenssen HL, Lehmitz R, Lakner K, Hitzschke B, Richter M, Heydenreich A (1990)
[Effect of pulsating EMF therapy on cell volume and phagocytosis activity in multiple sclerosis and migraine - Article in German].
Psychiatr Neurol Med Psychol (Leipz) Aug;42(8):457-466.
Neurologische Abteilung, Universitat Rostock. PEMF treatment was studied in 10 patients with multiple sclerosis and 10 patients with migraine. In both patients' groups a single treatment induced a significant rise of yeast particle uptake by blood granulocytes. The % of phagocytizing cells was increased in migraine patients only. In both groups 20 PEMF treatments caused a reduction of particle uptake, whereas the % of phagocytizing cells remained unchanged. In migraine patients the opsonic capacity of serum and the mean cell volume of erythrocytes, lymphocytes and granulocytes were initially reduced, but increased during the course of 20 PEMF treatments. The biphasic changes of cell volume and phagocytic activity are interpreted as a result of counter-regulation of the organism in response to the primary PEMF effect. PMID: 2247525, UI: 91062477
I.A. Il'inskii, et al., "Experience with the Use of Glucocorticosteroids and Magnetic Fields in the Intensive Therapy of Severe Forms of Viral Hepatitis," Soviet Medicine, 9, 1978, p. 72-74.
Results of this study showed that the use of magnetic fields was effective in treating patients suffering from viral hepatitis who had previously not benefited from conventional drug therapies.
V.V. Krasnov & A.I. Shilenok, "Magnetotherapy of Hepatitis A and B in Children," Pediatriia, 10,1991, p. 54-57.
This study examined the effects of magnetotherapy in children suffering from various forms of viral hepatitis.
Magnetotherapy consisted of alternating magnetic fields applied to the liver area daily over a total of 10-15 days.
Results indicated magnetotherapy led to more rapid and trouble-free recovery.
K. Perjes, et al., "Effect of Magnetotherapy on Recovery After Herniated Disk Surgery,"
Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium,May 16-17, 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 159-162.
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the effects of magnetotherapy in patients following herniated disk surgery.
L.L.Orlov, et al., " Indications for Using a New Magnetotherapeutic Method in Arterial Hypertension," Soviet Medicine, (8),1991, . 23-24.
Results of this placebo-controlled study demonstrated a 76-percent effectiveness rate for running impulse magnetic field therapy in a group of arterial hypertensive patients. Treatment consisted of two 25-minute exposures per day over a period of 10-20 total exposures, at frequencies of 10 or 100 Hz and magnetic field intensity of 3 or 10 mT.
hypertension (stage II)
S.G. Ivanov, et al., "Use of Magnetic Fields in the Treatment of Hypertensive Disease, "
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (3), 1993, . 67-69.
This placebo-controlled study examined the effects of constant and of running magnetic fields in patients suffering from stage II hypertension. Results found that constant magnetic fields exhibited benefits in 68 percent of patients treated, and running magnetic fields were helpful in 78 percent. Only 30 percent of controls showed improvement. Constant magnetic field treatment consisted of constant magnets applied to the inner side of the wrist on each hand for 35-40 minutes daily over a period of 7-10 days. Running magnetic field treatment involved the use of the apparatus for 20 minutes per day for a total of 12-15 days.
L.L. Orlov, et al., "Effect of a Running Pulse Magnetic Field on Some Humoral Indices and Physical Capacity in Patients with Neurocirculatory Hypo- and Hypertension," Biofizika, 41(4),1996, . 944-948.
This controlled study examined the effects of magnetotherapy in patients suffering from neurocirculatory hypotension (low blood pressure) or hypertension (high blood pressure). Treatment consisted of 0.5 mT, 300 Hz administered for 20 minutes per day over a course of 10 days. Patients suffering from hypotension did not benefit significantly from the magnetotherapy. Hypertension patients, however, showed a marked improvement with respect to symptoms including headache, chest pain, extremity numbness, abnormal systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and work capacity.
Y.B. Kirillov, et al., "Magnetotherapy in Obliterating Vascular Diseases of the Lower Extremities,
" Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (3),May-June 1992, . 14-17.
Results of this study showed exposure to low-frequency alternating magnetic fields had beneficial effects in children with primary arterial hypertension, as seen in the attenuation of sympathetic and vagotonic symptoms.
V.S. Zadionchenko, et al., "Prognostic Criteria of the Efficacy of Magnetic and Magnetic-laser Therapy in Patients with the Initial Stages of Hypertension," Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult, (1),January-February 1997, . 8-11.
This study demonstrated that traveling pulsed magnetic field and magnetic laser treatment produced beneficial effects in patients suffering from the initial stages of essential hypertension.
Orlov LL, Alekseeva NP, Galuza GI, Slutskii II, Drozdov IuF (1985)
[Hemodynamic and humoral mechanisms of the therapeutic effect of the "travelling" impulse magnetic field in hypertension -
[ Article in Russian].
Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult Jan;1:23-27. PMID: 3984249, UI: 85169867
Miasnikov IG (1992) [Magnetotherapy of initial manifestations of cerebrovascular disorders in hypertension -
[Article in Russian]. Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 92(1):63-67.
The paper is concerned with the data on 147 subjects who underwent magnetotherapy applied to the cervical area.
The main group included 102 subjects, 45 person served as control. The purpose of the work was to base the application of MT under inpatient and home conditions with the use of the above-indicated unit. In view of this fact, a study was made of cerebral hemo- and thermodynamics with the aid of rheoencephalography and encephaloradiothermography under the action of different modes of the functioning of the unit (pulse and variable magnet induction fields 12-15 mTl and 30-35 mTl). A method of measuring magnetosensitivity of patients depending on the temperature reaction of the brain to a single MT session was elaborated.
The greatest clinical effect was attained with the use of pulse magnetic field 15 mTl.
Magnetotherapy gave good results under inpatient and home conditions. The magnetosensitive patients had the highest effect.
PMID: 1319653, UI: 92312254
hip prostheses (loosened)
G. Gualtieri, et al., "The Effect Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Stimulation on Patients Treated of Hip Revesions with Trans-Femoral Approach," Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, 8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.
This double-blind study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on loosened hip prostheses.
Results showed an increase of bone density in all patients receiving PEMF treatment compared to only 60 percent of controls.
The authors argue such findings suggest PEMF elicits early bone reconstruction, which enhances early weight bearing.
hip prostheses (aseptic loosening of )
Therapy with pulsed electromagnetic fields in aseptic loosening of total hip protheses: a prospective study.
Konrad K, Sevcic K, Foldes K, Piroska E, Molnar E. Clin Rheumatol 1996 Jul;15(4):325-8
Orszagos Reumatologiai es Fizioterapias Intezet, Budapes, Hungary.
This study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (50 Hz, 50 G) in treating aseptic loosening of total hip prostheses.
PEMF therapy consisted of 20 minutes per day for 6 days per week over a total of 20 such sessions and was begun, on average, a year and a half following the start of loosening. Results showed PEMF to have some beneficial effects with respect to loosened hip arthroplasties, although it was not effective in patients suffering severe pain due to extreme loosening.
Aseptic loosening is the most common problem of hip arthroplasties, limiting its long term success. We report a study of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatment in 24 patients with this complication. At the end of treatment, six months and one year later, pain and hip movements improved significantly with the exception of flexion and extension.
There was significant improvement in both isotope scans and ultrasonography, but not in plain X-ray.
The decreased pain and improved function suggest that PEMF is effective in improving symptoms of patients with loose hip replacement.
No improvement, however, can be expected in patients with severe pain due to gross loosening.
PMID: 8853163 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
hip degenerative arthritis
G. Borsalino, et al., "Electrical Stimulation of Human Femoral Intertrochanteric Osteotomies.
Double-Blind Study, Clin Orthop, (237),December 1988, . 256-263.
Results of this double-blind study showed significant healing effects of low-frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields in patients treated with femoral intertrochanteric osteotomy for hip degenerative arthritis.
E. Riva Sanseverino, et al., "Therapeutic Effects of Pulsed Magnetic Fields on Joint Diseases,
" Panminerva Med, 34(4), October-December 1992, p.187-196.
Results of this 11-year study involving 3014 patients found pulsed magnetic field treatment at low frequencies and intensities to be a highly effective, side-effect-free therapy for joint disease.
Khabirova GF (1978)
[Use of magnetic field for the treatment of intra-articular injuries - Article in Russian].
Ortop Travmatol Protez Dec;12:53-57. PMID: 745848, UI: 79135998
V.A. Kiyatkin, "Pulsed Magnetic Field in Therapy of Patients with Secondary Chronic Pyelonephritis,
I.V. Khamaganova, et al., "The Use of a Pulsed Magnetic Field in the Treatment of Lupus Erythematosus,"
Ter Arkh, 67(10),1995, p. 84-87.
This review article examined the data concerning impulsed magnetic fields in the treatment of lupus erythematosus. Studies indicate that the treatment can be beneficial due to its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, its positive action on microcirculation, and immunological reactivity.
R. Sandyk, "Successful Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis with Magnetic Fields,"
International Journal Neurosci, 66(3-4),October 1992, p. 237-250.
This article reports on the case of a 50-year-old female chronic progressive multiple sclerosis patient who received a single external application of low magnetic fields who experienced significant improvements following the treatment.
R. Sandyk, "Reversal of Alexia in Multiple Sclerosis Weak Electromagnetic Fields,"
International Journal of Neurosci, 83(1-2),November 1995, p. 69-79.
This article reports on the cases of three multiple sclerosis patients suffering from alexia (lack of understanding of written words) who experienced a reversal of the alexia following the start of pico tesla-range electromagnetic field treatment.
R. Sandyk, "Long Term Beneficial Effects of Weak Electromagnetic Fields in Multiple Sclerosis,"
International Journal of Neurosci, 83(1-2),November 1995, p. 45-57.
This article reports on the case of a middle-aged disabled female patient with a 19-year history of chronic relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Within one day of receiving experimental treatment with picotesla electromagnetic fields, the patient exhibited improvements in her condition. The patient continued with 1-2 treatments per week over a period of 32 months.
During this time, significant improvements were seen with respect to a range of physical symptoms, as well as cognitive functions.
R. Sandyk, "Suicidal Behavior is Attenuated in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Treatment with Electromagnetic Fields,"
International Journal of Neurosci, 87(1-2),October 1996, p. 5-15.
The cases of three female multiple sclerosis patients exhibiting suicidal behavior are discussed in this article. Treatment with pulsed pico tesla-level electromagnetic fields resolved the suicidal behavior in all three patients, an improvement that was maintained over a follow-up period of 3.5 years.
R. Sandyk, "Treatment with Electromagnetic Field Alters the Clinical Course of Chronic Progressive Multiple Sclerosis--A Case Report," International Journal of Neurosci, 88(1-2),November 1996, p. 75-82.
This article reports on the case of a 36-year-old man severely disabled with partial paralysis and lack of coordination. Three treatment sessions per week with pulsed electromagnetic fields over a period of one year led to a range of improvements, including improvements in gait, balance, bowel and bladder functions, vision, mood, and sleep.
No progression of symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis was seen throughout the course of EMF treatment.
R. Sandyk, "Effect of Weak Electromagnetic Fields on Body Image Perception in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis,
" International Journal of Neurosci, 86(1-2),July 1996, p. 79-85.
This article reports on the cases of two multiple sclerosis patients suffering from chronic ataxia who performed poorly on human figure drawing tests administered to measure body image perception. Treatment with extracerebral applications of picotesla flux electromagnetic fields led to improvements in gait and balance as well as a normalization in body image perception as seen on a repeat of the same test each patient.
R. Sandyk, "Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields Attenuates Carbohydrate Craving in a Patients with Multiple Sclerosis," International Journal of Neurosci, 86(1-2),July 1996, p. 67-77.
This article reports on the case of a 51-year-old female patient with remitting-progressive multiple sclerosis who experienced a successful reduction in carbohydrate craving believed to be associated with the exacerbation of her condition following treatment with a series of extra cranial AC pulsed applications of pico tesla flux intensity electromagnetic fields.
R. Sandyk & L.C. Dann, "Weak Electromagnetic Fields Attenuate Tremor in Multiple Sclerosis,"
International Journal of Neurosci, 79(3-4),December 1994, p. 199-212.
This article reports on the cases of three multiple sclerosis patients suffering from a chronic progressive course of the disease who experienced a reduction in tremors following treatment with brief external applications of pulsed EMFs of 7.5-pT intensity.
R. Sandyk, Reversal of Visuospatial Hemi-inattention in Patients with Chronic Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields," International Journal of Neurosci, 79(3-4),December 1994, p. 169-184.
This article reports on the cases of three female chronic multiple sclerosis patients who experienced a reversal of cognitive deficits following treatment with brief external applications of alternating pulsed electromagnetic fields in the picotesla range of intensity.
R. Sandyk, Improvement in Word-fluency Performance in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Electromagnetic Fields,
" International Journal Neurosci, 79(1-2),November 1994, p.75-90.
This article reports on the cases of three female multiple sclerosis patients with poor word fluency who experienced a 100-percent increase in word output following 4-5 sessions of treatment with external applications of extremely weak electromagnetic fields in the pico tesla range of intensity.
R. Sandyk & R.P. Iacono, "Improvement PicoTesla Range Magnetic Fields of Perceptual-motor Performance and Visual Memory in a Patient with Chronic Progressive Multiple Sclerosis," International Journal of Neurosci, 78(1-2),September 1994, p. 53-66.
This article reports on the case of a 58-year-old male multiple sclerosis patient with a 37-year history of the disease. Treatment with external application of magnetic fields in the pico tesla range led to a speedy improvement of neurological symptoms in the areas of walking, balance, sensory symptoms, and bladder function. Improvements in numerous cognitive functions were seen within 24 hours of treatment as well.
R. Sandyk & R.P. Iacono, "Multiple Sclerosis: Improvement of Visuoperceptive Functions PicoTesla Range Magnetic Fields," International Journal of Neurosci, 74(1-4),January-February 1994, p. 177-189.
This article reports on the case of a 36-year-old multiple sclerosis patient who experienced immediate improvements in visuoperceptive functions following treatment with external application of pico tesla-range magnetic fields.
R. Sandyk, "Application of Weak Electromagnetic Fields Facilitates Sensory-motor Integration in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis," International Journal of Neurosci, 85(1-2),March 1996, p. 101-110.
This article reports on the cases of three multiple sclerosis patients suffering from falls due to rapid deterioration in balance and triggered distracting external auditory stimuli. Treatment with a series of extra cranially applied, low-frequency picotesla-range intensity electromagnetic fields quickly resolved such symptoms associated with a loss of balance.
R. Sandyk, Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields Improves Fatigue Associated with Multiple Sclerosis,
International Journal of Neurosci, 84(1-4),February 1996, p. 177-186.
This article reports on the cases of three multiple sclerosis patients experiencing continuous and debilitating daily fatigue over the course of several years. Treatment with extracranially applied picotesla flux electromagnetic fields dramatically improved symptoms of fatigue in all three patients.
R. Sandyk, Premenstrual Exacerbation of Symptoms in Multiple Sclerosis is Attenuated Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields, International Journal of Neurosci, 83(3-4),December 1995, p. 187-198.
This article reports on the cases of two female patients with chronic progressive-stage multiple sclerosis who suffered from regular worsening of their symptoms starting approximately a week prior to menstruation and abating at menstruation onset. Such symptoms were resolved in both patients two months following the start of treatment with the extracranial application of weak electromagnetic fields.
R. Sandyk R.P. Iacono, Resolution of Longstanding Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis Application of PicoTesla Range Magnetic Fields, International Journal of Neurosci, 70(3-4),June 1993, p. 255-269.
This article reports on the case of a 64-year-old female patient with a 22-year history of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis.
Two 30-minute treatments with low-level electromagnetic fields produced a marked improvement in a variety of symptoms.
R. Sandyk, "Rapid Normalization of Visual Evoked Potentials picoTesla Range Magnetic Fields in Chronic Progressive Multiple Sclerosis," International Journal of Neurosci, 77(3-4),August 1994, p. 243-259.
This article reports on the case of a 55-year-old female chronic progressive multiple sclerosis patient who received a single external application of low magnetic fields (7.5-picotesla; 5-Hz frequency) which lasted 20 minutes. The treatment quickly led to improvements in a variety of areas, including fatigue, sleep, vision, bladder function, movement and speech problems, and mood.
multiple sclerosis / Cognitive Improvement
R. Sandyk, "Progressive Cognitive Improvement in Multiple Sclerosis from Treatment with Electromagnetic Fields,
" International Journal of Neurosci, 89(1-2),January 1997, p. 39-51.
This article reports on the cases of three patients suffering from long-time symptoms of multiple sclerosis who received treatment with extra cerebral pulsed electromagnetic fields over a period of between 6 and 18 months.
Results showed all three patients experienced significant improvements in cognitive functions.
multiple sclerosis / Dysarthria
R. Sandyk, "Resolution of Dysarthria in Multiple Sclerosis Treatment with Weak Electromagnetic Fields,
" International Journal of Neurosci, 83(1-2),November 1995, p. 81-92.
This is a report on the cases of two chronic multiple sclerosis patients exhibiting severe speech problems.
Symptoms were completely resolved following 3-4 weeks of treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields.
Sandyk R (1996) Treatment with EMF alters the clinical course of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: a case report.
Int J Neurosci Nov;88(1-2):75-82. NeuroCommunication Research Laboratories, Danbury, CT 06811, USA.
It is estimated that 10-20% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a chronic progressive (CP) course characterized by an insidious of neurological deficits followed by steady progression of disability in the absence of symptomatic remission. No therapeutic modality has shown specific efficacy in the treatment of patients with CP MS and there are no data to show that any pharmacologic or other modality alters the clinical course of CP MS. Treatment with picotesla EMFs is a highly effective modality for the symptomatic management of MS including the chronic progressive form. Also, this treatment also seems to alter the natural course of the disease in CP patients. A 36 yr-old man experienced, at the age of 31, insidious weakness in the legs and several months later developed difficulties with balance with ataxia of gait. His gait abnormality progressed slowly over the following years and at the age of 35 he was severely disabled with spastic paraparesis and ataxia using a rolling walker for ambulation and a scooter for longer distances. In particular, his disability had progressed rapidly over the 6 mo preceding the initiation of treatment with EMFs. He as classified have CP MS and his prognosis was considered extremely unfavorable due to the degree of cerebellar and pyramidal tract involvement and the rapid course of deterioration. In July 1995 the patient began experimental treatment with EMFs. While receiving 3 treatment sessions/wk for 12 mo he experienced improvement in cerebellar functions such as gait, balance and tremor as well as bowel and bladder functions, mood, sleep and cognitive function and resolution of diplopia, blurring of vision, dysarthria, paresthesias in the hands, and fatigue.
Most remarkably, there was no further progression of the disease during the course of magnetic therapy.
This case showed that EMF-treatment reversed the clinical course of CP MS in addition to producing symptomatic improvement.
PMID: 9003966, UI: 97157687
cerebral paralysis / multiple sclerosis.
Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study indicated that exposure to magnetic fields produced beneficial clinical effects in patients suffering from cerebral paralysis and in patients with multiple sclerosis.
A. Sieron, The Variable Magnetic Fields in the Complex Treatment of Neurological Diseases, European Bioelectromagnetics Association, 3rd International Congress,29 February - 3 March 1996, Nancy, France.
multiple sclerosis / migraine
Mix E, Jenssen HL, Lehmitz R, Lakner K, Hitzschke B, Richter M, Heydenreich A (1990)
[Effect of pulsating EMF therapy on cell volume and phagocytosis activity in multiple sclerosis and migraine - Article in German].
Psychiatr Neurol Med Psychol (Leipz) Aug;42(8):457-466. Neurologische Abteilung, Universitat Rostock.
A. Guseo, Double-Blind Treatments with Pulsating Electromagnetic Field in Multiple Sclerosis,
Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium,May 16-17, 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 85-89.
Journal of Bioelectr., 6(1),1987, p. 23-35.
Results of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that pulsed electromagnetic fields administered daily over a period of 15 days proved to be an effective treatment in reducing spasticity and incontinence associated with multiple sclerosis.
multiple sclerosis / Parkinson's disease
J. Bardasano, Extracranial Device for Noninvasive Neurological Treatments with Pulsating ELF Magnetic Fields,
Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine,8-13 June 1997, Bologna, Italy.
Results of this study showed that the application of ELF magnetic fields via a plastic helmet device housing a set of coils (generating fields of 8 Hz and 7.5 pT) produced beneficial clinical effects after 30 minutes in patients suffering Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis.
This study examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields in patients suffering from peripheral muscle paralysis. Treatment consisted of 20-minute exposures (2-50 Hz, 70 G). Results showed 50-Hz pulsed electromagnetic fields to be the most effective level of treatment and that such therapy enhanced muscle irritability in peripheral paralysis patients as well as in healthy controls.
L. Mecseki, The Study of the Efficacy of Magnetotherapy in Peripheral Paralysis,
Hungarian Symposium on Magnetotherapy, 2nd Symposium, 16-17,May 1987, Szekesfehervar, Hungary, p. 149-158.